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The End Times:

Based on

Numerical Analysis of

the Quran, Hadith,

Arabic Words, and

Historical Events.

 

Mahdi in 2017

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Up
Numerical Miracles Intro
More Numerical Miracles
Significance of No. 7 in Quran
Why do Pilgrims circulate Kaba 7 times
Secrets of Surah Noah
Mathematical Miracles
Significance of No 19
Numerical Mysteries
Beyond Probability
Israa & Al-Aqsa
Titanic in Quran

 

 

Introduction to Numerical Miracles

in the Holy Quran

By Bassam Jarrar

  بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

 In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

 

Reviewed by:

Tariq Hamideh

Basim Al-Bassumi

 

Noon Center For Quranic Studies & Research, Al-Bireh

Telefax:      00970 2 240 2088

Address:     P.O. Box 3763 Al-Bireh

Website:     www.islamNoon.com
 

First Edition 1419 H (1998)

 

Dar Al-Noor Publishing & Distribution

Al-Bakri Building, 8th Floor

Ramallah, West Bank

 

Table of Contents

 

Introduction…7

Chapter 1 - Sura 74: Surat Al-Muddathir (‘The Cloaked One’) – An Introduction to the Numerical Miracle…9

Chapter 2 - The Miracle of the Serial Order of the Suras in the Holy Quran…19

Chapter 3 - The Miracle of the Serial Order of the Suras opening with Fawatih (letters)…26

Chapter 4 - The Jummal (Numerical Values of Letters) of the Alphabet and the Numerical Miracle…34

Chapter 5 – The Mathematical Miracle and Astronomy…43

Chapter 6 - The Significance of Number in Sura 72: ‘Al-Jinn’…50

Epilogue…56

Appendix…57

 

 

In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

 

Introduction:

The Noon Center for Quranic Studies and Research specializes in Quranic (Koranic) Studies. One of its priorities is the carrying out of research into numerical and mathematical miracles in the Quran (Koran). This is because the world of mathematics and numbers is the world of provable facts, Math having virtually become the language of physical and social sciences. And why should this not be so when the whole universe is based on numbers? Allah says: “He takes into account every single thing.” (Surat An-Naml, 27:28)

Thus far, the numerical miracles of the Quran have not been given their due merit. This may have been justified in the past, but in the modern computer age it is surprising to find that we are still only at the beginning of the road, and the research is still scant. At the Noon Center we are aware that attracting the attention of researchers, scholars and lay readers requires massive research and effort to impress new factual findings on minds, although we are also aware that hesitation and reservation about what is new is a healthy phenomenon. Thus, we feel that our duty is to give evidence for the credibility and significance of numbers in miracle studies in the Quran in particular and in Quranic Studies in general.

 In this small book, the Noon Center’s first fruit, the reader will find six chapters which give evidence of the mathematical miracles in the Holy Quran. The reader will observe that each chapter is a basis for a mathematical line of thinking. We thereby aim to draw the attention of those interested to the possibilities, on the basis of which we can conduct research on mathematical miracles. What is suggested is a mere sample of examples and logical premises to get the researcher “on the road”. Despite our conviction that there are other lines of approach, we have nonetheless limited ourselves to these six. In themselves they should be more than enough to give an idea of what we mean when we talk of the mathematical miracles of the Quran.

 Some people ask about the usefulness of such studies. It might be sufficient to say that we are dealing with what exists as part of the composition of the Holy Quran – that is, we research and describe our findings. Nothing more. In other words, we describe the Holy Quran from a numerical perspective. Even this is not without value, and there must be repercussions in Quranic Studies in general. We have felt that some of these benefits are: 

1- This perspective helps to clarify the issue of the miracle of the Quran, making it easier for people engaged in Dawa to present proofs and establish evidence, and for seekers of the truth to reach certainty.

 2- It helps to settle many controversial issues pertaining to Quranic sciences such as: the use of the Quranic script that is known as Ottoman script; the order of the Suras (chapters of the Quran); the names of the Suras; the number of verses in each Sura, and so on.

 3- It greatly helps to refute the doubts of orientalists and skeptics that relate to the compiling and writing down of the first copy of the Holy Quran. Some of the meanings of the verses become clear, such as:

“We have, without doubt, sent down the Message; And We will assuredly guard it (from corruption).” (‘Al-Hijr’, 15:9)

 4- It helps with the interpretation of the Holy Quran. The discovery of the numerical structure of the universe has also helped the understanding of many facts about creation and its miracles.

 5- There are logical premises that suggest the possibility of understanding the universe in the light of Quranic numbers and vice versa. Why should this not be so when the Creator is also the one who revealed the Quran? 

This is only a little of what we hope to achieve with Allah’s help, and Allah is the Guardian of Success.

 Bassam Jarrar

Director of the Noon Center

 

}  سورة المدّثر {

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

*يا أيها المدثر * قم فأنذر * وربك فكبر * وثيابك فطهر * والرجز فاهجر * ولا تمنن تستكثر * ولربك فاصبر*  فإذا نقر في الناقور * فذلك يومئذ يوم عسير * على الكافرين غير يسير * ذرني ومن خلقت وحيدا * وجعلت له مالا ممدودا * وبنين شهودا * ومهدت له تمهيدا * ثم يطمع أن أزيد * كلا إنه كان لآياتنا عنيدا * سأرهقه صعودا * إنه فكر وقدر*  فقتل كيف قدر * ثم قتل كيف قدر * ثم نظر * ثم عبس وبسر * ثم أدبر واستكبر * فقال إن هذا إلا سحر يؤثر * إن هذا إلا قول البشر * سأصليه سقر * وما أدراك ما سقر * لا تبقي ولا تذر * لواحة للبشر * عليها تسعة عشر * وما جعلنا أصحاب النار إلا ملائكة * وما جعلنا عدتهم إلا فتنة للذين كفروا ليستيقن الذين أوتوا الكتاب ويزداد الذين آمنوا إيمانا ولا يرتاب الذين أوتوا الكتاب والمؤمنون وليقول الذين في قلوبهم مرض والكافرون ماذا أراد الله بهذا مثلا كذلك يضل الله من يشاء ويهدي من يشاء وما يعلم جنود ربك إلا هو وما هي إلا ذكرى للبشر * كلا والقمر * والليل إذ أدبر * والصبح إذا أسفر * إنها لإحدى الكبر * نذيرا للبشر * لمن شاء منكم أن يتقدم أو يتأخر * كل نفس بما كسبت رهينة * إلا أصحاب اليمين * في جنات يتساءلون * عن المجرمين*  ما سلككم في سقر * قالوا لم نك من المصلين * ولم نك نطعم المسكين * وكنا نخوض مع الخائضين * وكنا نكذب بيوم الدين * حتى أتانا اليقين * فما تنفعهم شفاعة الشافعين * فما لهم عن التذكرة معرضين * كأنهم حمر مستنفرة * فرت من قسورة * بل يريد كل امرئ منهم أن يؤتى صحفا منشرة * كلا بل لا يخافون الآخرة * كلا إنه تذكرة*  فمن شاء ذكره * وما يذكرون إلا أن يشاء الله هو أهل التقوى وأهل المغفرة *   

صدق الله العظيم   (Quran, Sura Al-Muddathir 74: 1-56)


 

Chapter 1

Sura 74: Surat Al-Muddathir (‘The Cloaked One’) –

 

1. Suspicion of Numbers, Particularly Number 19

In the 19th Century, a sect appeared in Iran called the Babists (later became known as Bahais). The first to follow the leader, Al-Bab (meaning ‘The Door’), were a group of eighteen, making the total number 19. After Al-Bab was murdered, Babism became known as Bahaism. One of its tenets was the sanctification of the number 19 and in fact, they divided the year into 19 months, made a month 19 days and devoted the remaining days of the year to acts of charity, as they perceive them. As Bahaism was considered a sect that was outside Islam, we find that many Muslim scholars have taken a hesitant and suspicious attitude towards the issue of number 19. In my view there are no reasonable grounds for this attitude. We will find that there is a logic to the matter that is related to the configuration of letters and words, and our stand should not be a reaction to the illusions of certain people, especially when the Holy Quran (Koran) has set this number as a trial for the Unbelievers.

However, in the late 1970’s when Rashad Khalifa, an Egyptian living in the United States, published research on the number 19 in the Quran. Initially, people received the research favorably, not knowing that it was contrived, and he was a Bahai, with a hidden agenda. Following this, it did not take long before Khalifa proceeded to claim Prophethood based on the number 19, his claim coinciding with our discovery that he had faked his research. The reader will find details about the issue in our book, ‘The Miracle of the Number 19 in the Holy Quran – Premises Awaiting Outcomes’.

The contrived research of Rashad Khalifa and his claim to prophethood has left a negative impact on the whole issue of numerical miracles, as if those who were impressed by the research realized later that they had been fooled and reacted accordingly. However, we must remember that the question has nothing to do with either Bahaism or with Rashad Khalifa. The Quran clearly states the specificity of this number and that it is a trial for the Unbeliever, and a matter of certainty for the People of the Book who look for truth, and a cause for the increase in the faith of Believers. It is remarkable that the case of this number 19 has not been considered at any age before as it is now. It could thus be seen to be one of the prophecies of the Holy Quran that is now becoming apparent. It now seems that our understanding of this mysterious number will develop in a positive direction that will contribute to the achievement of certainty and the increase in faith, as predicted, in an age when people have raised doubts and demanded more evidence and more proof.

There is no need for a negative attitude towards the issue of numerical miracles, though verification is a necessity. At the moment we can verify any fact – this is what we have done in our research – and it is possible to judge the significance of any proposition. A negative attitude may close off a major aspect of the Quranic miracle, which may have a positive impact on the level of faith and on the level of Quran-related studies and on the level of refuting doubts raised about the Quran, its purity and inimitability. As to Bahaism, its nullity is obvious, its perversity is clear and the number 19 will not help them in promoting their ideology. In fact, the number 19 will be their weakest point, because this number actually testifies to the truth of the Islamic message which they stand against, thus becoming their  fitna (trial). We are living in a time of the resurgence of certitude that is paradoxically coming from the center of fitna. This resurgence, in-sha-Allah, includes the signs of this miracle that we have researched in this book, signs that testify to the purity of the Holy Quran from distortion and alteration, consolidating certainty and increasing faith. What we can see of this question gives promise of universal blessing.

 

2. Number Nineteen as mentioned in  Surat Al-Muddathir of the Quran

The first verse of the Holy Quran to be revealed to the Prophet Muhammad  صلى الله عليه وسلم in his Prophethood stage was: اقْرَأْ بِاسْمِ رَبِّكَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ “Recite! In the name of thy Lord the Creator, who created mankind from a clot of blood…” (Al-‘Alaq, 96:1). However, the first revelation in the Prophet Muhammad’s mission or apostolic phase was: يَا أَيُّهَا الْمُدَّثِّرُ “O, thou wrapped up in a mantle…” (Al-Muddathir 74:1). In other words, the revelation of Sura 96 to Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم  made him a Prophet. Whereas, when he received Sura 74, he was asked therein to deliver a message to mankind and thus he became a Messenger, or Apostle, in addition to being a prophet.

What concerns us in this context is Surat Al-Muddathir, which is the first revelation of Apostlehood, rather than Prophethood.

In Surat Al-Muddathir (Chapter 74) says in verse 1-31:

*يا أيها المدثر * قم فأنذر * وربك فكبر * وثيابك فطهر * والرجز فاهجر * ولا تمنن تستكثر * ولربك فاصبر*  فإذا نقر في الناقور * فذلك يومئذ يوم عسير * على الكافرين غير يسير * ذرني ومن خلقت وحيدا * وجعلت له مالا ممدودا * وبنين شهودا * ومهدت له تمهيدا * ثم يطمع أن أزيد * كلا إنه كان لآياتنا عنيدا * سأرهقه صعودا * إنه فكر وقدر*  فقتل كيف قدر * ثم قتل كيف قدر * ثم نظر * ثم عبس وبسر * ثم أدبر واستكبر * فقال إن هذا إلا سحر يؤثر * إن هذا إلا قول البشر * سأصليه سقر * وما أدراك ما سقر * لا تبقي ولا تذر * لواحة للبشر * عليها تسعة عشر * وما جعلنا أصحاب النار إلا ملائكة * وما جعلنا عدتهم إلا فتنة للذين كفروا ليستيقن الذين أوتوا الكتاب ويزداد الذين آمنوا إيمانا ولا يرتاب الذين أوتوا الكتاب والمؤمنون وليقول الذين في قلوبهم مرض والكافرون ماذا أراد الله بهذا مثلا كذلك يضل الله من يشاء ويهدي من يشاء  

"O thou wrapped up (in the mantle)! Arise and deliver thy warning! And thy Lord do thou magnify! And thy garments keep free from stain! And all abomination shun! Nor expect, in giving, any increase (for thyself)! But, for thy Lord's (Cause), be patient and constant! Finally, when the Trumpet is sounded, That will be- that Day - a Day of Distress,- Far from easy for those without Faith. Leave Me alone, (to deal) with the (creature) whom I created (bare and) alone! To whom I granted resources in abundance, And sons to be by his side!  To whom I made (life) smooth and comfortable! Yet is he greedy-that I should add (yet more); By no means! For to Our Signs he has been refractory! Soon will I visit him with a mount of calamities! For he thought and he plotted; And woe to him! How he plotted! Yea, Woe to him; How he plotted! Then he looked round; Then he frowned and he scowled; Then he turned back and was haughty; Then said he: "This is nothing but magic, derived from of old;  "This is nothing but the word of a mortal!" Soon will I cast him into Hell-Fire! And what will explain to thee what Hell-Fire is? Naught doth it permit to endure, and naught doth it leave alone!  Darkening and changing the colour of man! Over it are Nineteen. And We have set none but angels as Guardians of the Fire; and We have fixed their number only as a trial for Unbelievers,- in order that the People of the Book may arrive at certainty, and the Believers may increase in Faith,- and that no doubts may be left for the People of the Book and the Believers, and that those in whose hearts is a disease and the Unbelievers may say, "What symbol doth Allah intend by this?" Thus doth Allah leave to stray whom He pleaseth, and guide whom He pleaseth: and none can know the forces (soldiers) of thy Lord, except He and this is no other than a warning to mankind." ( 74 : 1-31)

Because the Sura was not revealed in its entirety on one single occasion (but rather gradually), it records the first moments, and the ensuing attempts of unbelievers to refute, oppose, resist and nullify the truth of the Quran. The Sura discusses the failure of the Idolaters in this respect, a failure that reduced them to defiance and antagonism. In this, they were like: (a) all arrogant individuals, (b)  all those whose worldly desires and self-interest overtake their minds and hearts, and (c)  all those who are so accustomed to the status quo, despite all its  negative aspects, that they detest any change, even a change that may bring with it blessing and goodness.

Because of this tendency in people, there has to be a shock; a threat that will break down the barriers and throw aside the veils people hide behind. There has to be a sense of danger in order to mobilize energies to revolt against customs, traditions and norms. Hence, there is the threat of سَقَرَ Saqar (Hell-Fire) in Sura Al-Muddathir which says: لَا تُبْقِي وَلَا تَذَرُ  It leaves and spares no one and nothing (74:28).

The next verse says: لَوَّاحَةٌ لِّلْبَشَرِ   “Darkening and changing the color of humans”  (74:29). Hell-Fire burns and changes all the features of transient beauty that lure those people who are oblivious of the illusory nature of this transient present life. The Quran then proceeds with: عَلَيْهَا تِسْعَةَ عَشَرَ “Above it are nineteen” (74:30). Here, this verse seems to indicate that Hell-Fire is watched over by nineteen angels. It is possible that there are nineteen of these noble creatures or nineteen types or categories. We do not know for sure !

In his book Fi Zhilal Al-Quran (‘ In the Shades of the Quran’), Sayyed Qutub surmises: “Why there are nineteen – whatever this number signifies – is a matter known only to Allah who harmonized all existence and creates in proportion and measure.” Though ultimately, we agree with this, regarding the significance of the mentioning of number 19 in verse 74:30, we ponder: (a) whether the number here is to be considered as one of those verses in the Quran that is beyond our comprehension because it relate to the metaphysical world, or (b) whether it is rather meant to be by God as a spark or hint that triggers the human mind and guides it to decode the many secrets and mysteries in the Quran.

However, we believe in the rule that we should try to understand utterances, not disregard them, and we believe that the key to unlocking many of these mysteries is to be found in the verse: “Above it are nineteen. And We have set none but angels as guardians of the Hell-Fire; and We have made their number only as a trial for Unbelievers…” (74: 30-31)

The Quran thus provides some details about this mysterious number in verse 31: وَمَا جَعَلْنَا عِدَّتَهُمْ إِلَّا فِتْنَةً لِّلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا “We have made their number only as a trial for Unbelievers…” (74:31). We do not want to explore the meanings of the Arabic word جَعَلْنَا  Jaal (we have made), but we simply find that the verse states that this number is a trial for the Unbelievers. If we refer to the meaning of the Arabic word فِتْنَةً fitna (trial), we find that its root means to expose gold ore to fire, in order to separate the gold from the impurities by smelting. Thus, the فِتْنَةً fitna (trial) intends to extract the usable from the useless. The target group, then, is the group of Unbelievers. Number 19, as stated in the Holy Quran, can thus be seen as a “sorter”, separating the righteous people from the wicked ones.  

Some interpreters hold the view that stating the number 19 in the verse is there merely to tempt the idolaters of Quraish into making the issue an object of inquiry and ridicule. However, this opinion views the word فِتْنَةً  fitna only in a negative light, seeing it as a source of no good. However, fitna has other shades of meaning that depend on the true nature of the one who is exposed to it, what Allah knows about them, and what Allah wills. Thus, Allah leads astray whom He pleases and guides whom He pleases, as we find in verse 155 of Surat 7 (‘Al-A’raaf’), where Allah says through the words of Musa (Moses): إِنْ هِيَ إِلاَّ فِتْنَتُكَ تُضِلُّ بِهَا مَن تَشَاءُ وَتَهْدِي مَن تَشَاءُ أَنتَ وَلِيُّنَا فَاغْفِرْ لَنَا وَارْحَمْنَا وَأَنتَ خَيْرُ الْغَافِرِينَ “...This is no more than a trial. By it, We cause to go astray whoever We please (choose) and We guide (to the right path) whoever We please (choose) ..." (7:155)

Let us examine verse 31 of Al-Muddathir (Chapter 74):

وَمَا جَعَلْنَا أَصْحَابَ النَّارِ إِلَّا مَلَائِكَةً وَمَا جَعَلْنَا عِدَّتَهُمْ إِلَّا فِتْنَةً لِّلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لِيَسْتَيْقِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ وَيَزْدَادَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِيْمَانًا وَلَا يَرْتَابَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ وَلِيَقُولَ الَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ وَالْكَافِرُونَ مَاذَا أَرَادَ اللَّهُ بِهَذَا مَثَلًا كَذَلِكَ يُضِلُّ اللَّهُ مَن يَشَاءُ وَيَهْدِي مَن يَشَاءُ وَمَا يَعْلَمُ جُنُودَ رَبِّكَ إِلَّا هُوَ وَمَا هِيَ إِلَّا ذِكْرَى لِلْبَشَر     ِ And We have appointed only angels as guards of Hell-Fire. And We have made their number only as a trial for Unbelievers – in order that the People of the Book may arrive to certainty, and the Believers may increase in faith – and that no doubts may be left for the People of the Book and the Believers, and that those in whose hearts is a disease and the Unbelievers may say What doth Allah intend by this mathal (example)?.Thus doth Allah leave to stray whom He pleaseth, and guide whom He pleaseth: and none can know the forces of thy Lord, except He and this is no other than a warning to mankind” (74:31)

 

Mustafa Khairi says in his work, Al-Muktataf min Uyoon Al-Tafasir (‘Selections from the Leading Interpretations’):  

“This number has become an instrument of temptation for Unbelievers in two ways:

 1- They say mockingly: Why aren't there 20 (instead of just 19)? and,

 2- They say: How can only 19 be sufficient for punishing most of the creatures of the world from the beginning of creation to the Day of Resurrection?

The theme of these two questions is the denial of the omnipotence of God.”

It is obvious that such an argument relates to the Unbelievers whose mistaken approaches lead them to false conclusions. But the question still remains: How can such a number divide the Unbelievers’ camp in such a way that out of it can emerge some who end up believing in Allah and join the Believers’ group?

So, how can this number, or this trial, be a cause for certainty among the People of the Book? Most interpreters say: “They will find what Allah has told us about the number of Hell-Fire guardians compatible with what they already believe.” But we do not know how this agreement on one fact can result in certainty for the People of the Book. We know that there are some agreements on various matters and that there are differences. What prevents us from explaining this agreement in the light of the above quotation? And if agreement in this little fact can lead to certainty for the People of the Book and to the increase of faith in those who believe, how can you eradicate doubt in order “that no doubts may be left for the People of the Book and the Believers….” Is it logical or sensible to think that all these issues from the agreement of the fact that states that the Guardians of Hell-Fire are nineteen?

The verse continues:  وَلِيَقُولَ الَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ وَالْكَافِرُونَ مَاذَا أَرَادَ اللَّهُ بِهَذَا مَثَلًا  “And that those in whose hearts is a disease and the Unbelievers may say What doth Allah intend by this mathal?…” (74:31) 

Regarding “What doth Allah intend by this مَثَلًا mathal (example)?”, some interpreters suggest that the number 19 is as strange as this "example" mentioned in this verse.

Other interpreters say that this مَثَلًا mathal (example) refers to the description of the Guardians of Hell-Fire rather than their number, i.e. what Allah means by describing the Guardians as 19. So how can this small number of Guardians of Hell-Fire be able to punish the wicked human beings and the Jinn (demons) who will be sent to Hell-Fire?

We say that if you ask a Christian or a Jew about to provide an evidence that proves the existence of the Creator or to address the notion of religion, heavenly revelation, the Unseen, or some metaphysical question, you find them producing evidence, arguments, and answers, more or less similar to what Muslims are likely to provide. While an atheist is likely to take a totally different approach in addressing such matters. Muslims and the People of the Book do not argue about the existence of the Creator, but about His attributes, actions, laws and judgements. Atheists and hypocrites, on the other hand, deny the very idea of religion and make tangible material things the very beginning and the ultimate end. 

Now, let us return to the words: “And that those in whose hearts is a disease and the Unbelievers may say ‘What doth Allah intend by this mathal (example)?’…” The mentioning of number 19 in connection with the threat of  سَقَر Saqar (Hell-Fire) for those who do bad deeds, and that it is guarded by nineteen may seem ambiguous. If the Hell-Fire in the after-life is described as a burner or painful, we could understand how it feels like because we are familiar with fire in this life.  What is the significance of mentioning “nineteen”? Is it a threat we cannot relate to or a challenge ? Why does this Sura mention specifically "nineteen", not "twenty" or any other number?

On this subject, Zamakhshari says in his book, Kashaaf (‘Pathfinder’): “The Believers see it as wisdom and abide by it due to their belief that acts of Allah are all good and wise, thus increasing their faith. While the Unbelievers deny it and doubt it, thus increasing their unbelief and aberration.” Whereas Ka’bi says: “Fitna means a trial or test so that Believers attribute the secret of specifying a number to the Creator’s omniscience.”

While we accept and agree with Zamakhshari and Ka’bi, our opinion is that those who believe in the notion of religion, the Unseen and heavenly revelation are called on to search for the secret behind this number and for the reason behind there being nineteen Guardians. This becomes clearer when we know the cosmic significance of number 19 in astronomy.

Muhammad Al-Taher Ibn Ashur says in A-Tahrir wa Tanweer  (‘Liberation and Enlightenment’): “Allah has made the number of Hell-Fire guardians for other reasons which necessitated that specification which Allah alone knows.” Certainly the answer rests with Allah, and with Allah alone? Ibn Ashur also says: “That number (is) intended for other benefits, for people other than Unbelievers, those who consign knowledge to Allah’s omniscience (saying "Allah knows best.") and to fruitful contemplation.” Note the phrase “to fruitful contemplation.” 

Thus, a Believer’s faith that the Holy Quran is the Word of Allah (the All-Knowing and the Just) makes him take a positive approach and exercise his mind when attempting to fully understand the Quran. He or she will ponder the mysteries of the Quranic verses and the marvels of the universe, because the Believer knows that Allah has revealed the Quran and has created the universe. It is thus unwise to immediately consign knowledge to Allah alone and give up hope of intellectually decoding the mystery of Quran’s treasures. Our efforts to do this in no way contradict the admission of the inadequacy of the human intellect to grasp the whole truth. If anything, the increase in human knowledge is a visible evidence of the human mind’s fundamental limitations when compared to the knowledge of Allah. After all, isn’t meditation one of the obligations of being a Muslim? The Quran challenges and urges Muslim to ponder its full meaning.

Those who follow a religious approach are more likely to grasp wisdom behind religious portents and signs. On the other hand, the Unbelievers move in a vicious circle, never reaching true understanding, because their premises and arrogance do not lead them to the truth, but merely make them ask questions such as: Why not 20, or even 1000, and so on ? Such people will not find the truth. Even if these Unbelievers hear the truth from the Believers, they will reject it.

 “...Thus doth Allah leave to stray whom He pleaseth, and guide whom He pleaseth...” (‘Al-Muddathir’, 74:31) This statement in verse 31 suggests that فِتْنَةً fitna is intended to sort people and classify them.

Consider His saying:  وَلَقَدْ فَتَنَّا الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ فَلَيَعْلَمَنَّ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ صَدَقُوا وَلَيَعْلَمَنَّ الْكَاذِبِينَO  أَحَسِبَ النَّاسُ أَن يُتْرَكُوا أَن يَقُولُوا آمَنَّا وَهُمْ لَا يُفْتَنُونَ

“Do people think that they will be left alone by saying ‘We believe’ and that they will not be tested? We did test those before them, and Allah will certainly know those who are truthful from those who are liars.” (‘Al-Ankaboot’, 29: 2-3)

Regarding “...And none can know the forces (soldiers) of thy Lord except He...” (74:31),  Zamakhshari says. “It is not hard for Him (God) to increase the mentioned number of guardians, but in this particular number (nineteen) lies a wisdom that we don’t know, but He (God)– the exalted – knows it.” 

Regarding وَمَا هِيَ إِلَّا ذِكْرَى لِلْبَشَرِ “...And this is no other than a warning (or reminder) to mankind” (74:31), Ibn Ashur says the pronoun مَا هِي (this) refers to the number of the angels or guardians of Hell-Fire. Abu-Bakr Al-Jazaeri in his work Nahru Al-Khair ala Aysar Al-Tafasir (‘The River of Goodness to the Easiest Interpretations’) says: “It is possible that وَمَا هِيَ  (this) (in verse 31) refers to the number of angels (nineteen) and it is possible that it refers to Quranic verses or to Saqar (Hell-Fire) or to the forces of Your Lord. This is part of the Quranic miracle – one single word could be referring us to multiple matters.” Nasafi says, “These verses are no other than a warning to mankind”, while Razi remarks: “These verses containing these ambiguities … are a warning to all Believers and those who practice, though the beneficiaries are only the people of faith.” Tantawi Jawhari says in his book Al-Jawaher (‘Gems’): “This Sura containing سَقَر Saqar (Hell-Fire) and the number of guardians of Hell-Fire is nothing, but an admonishment to them.” However, Al-Qasami says: “This (the stated number 19) is no other than a warning to mankind, or a lesson…It is also said that the pronoun  وَمَا هِيَ  (this) (in verse 31)  refers to سَقَر Saqar (Hell-Fire) and it is said that it refers to verses. To me, the first opinion is more plausible...”

In my (Bassam Jarrar's) opinion, if the pronoun وَمَا هِيَ  "this" refers to Saqar, the understood meaning is that Hell-Fire is a warning to mankind. If it refers to verses, it is also understood. However, if it refers to the number 19, which agrees with the apparent structure of the sentence and which has been emphasized by Al-Qasimi, then we have to ask: How can number 19 be a warning to mankind?

The question remains: How will the number 19 be a trial out of which will emerge certainty? If the number 19 is a warning to humanity as stated in the Holy Quran, this means that people will reach certitude through this number, a number that is a warning, an admonition and a proof. It makes more sense to say that this will be achieved by a numerical miracle based on number 19, considering that certainty is not arrived at without decisive evidence, and a numerical miracle is without doubt such a decisive evidence.

After this quick survey of the meaning of these holy verses, we reach the following conclusions:

 1 – The Holy Quran has not made any number a theme discussed in detail, except the number 19.

 2 – God Almighty has made number 19 a trial for the Unbelievers, and this trial has four results: 

      a. The achievement of certitude for the People of the Book that Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم  is an apostle from Allah.

      b. An increase in faith for the Believers.

      c. There will not be the least doubt for the People of the Book or for Believers, which means that the evidence will be indisputable.

     d. The meaning of the number 19 will remain a mystery for the Unbelievers and the hypocrites. Thus, they will not achieve their aim because of a flaw in the whole approach of their investigation and deduction, arrogance, and the wickedness in their hearts.

3 – Those who read the verses will sense that they are confronting a serious matter – “This is but one of the mighty portents.” (74:35)

  

What gives weight to and confirms this, is what we find in the numerical structure of Surat Al-Muddathir (Sura 74) which can be summarized as follows:

1. The verses of Surat Al-Muddathir are very short, except for one verse that is notably long which is verse no. 31, which delineates the wisdom of choosing the number 19. Verse 31 consists of 57 words ( i.e. 19 x 3).

2. Verse 31 ( which consists of 19 x 3= 57 words) is the last verse in the Quran  that contains 19 words or a multiple of 19.

3. Verse 31 can be divided into two segment. The first segment comprises 38 words ( i.e. 19  x 2). This is the part that discusses the wisdom of specifying number 19. It ends with: “What doth Allah intend by this mathal (example)?” The second segment consists of 19 words, serving as a comment on what was mentioned in the first part: “Thus doth Allah lead astray whom He pleaseth and guide whom He pleaseth. And no one knows Allah’s forces except Him. This is nothing but a warning to people.”

4. In Verse 31, the phrase – و ما يعلم جنود ربك إلا هو  - “And none can know the forces (soldiers) of thy Lord except He” – consists of 19 letters.

Is it not possible that this, nineteen, is the numerical miracle of “the forces” stated in the verse? Why not, if the goal when mobilizing the troops is the victory of the idea?

5. The word count of the first 19 verses of Surat Al-Muddathir is 57 ( i.e. 19 x 3). Thus, it becomes clear that the word count of verse 31 of Surat Al-Muddathir which is 57 equals the word count of the first 19 verses. 

6. Verses 1 - 30  ( i.e. to the end of عليها تسعة عشر  “Above it are nineteen”) have 95 words ( i.e. 19 x 5) .

7. Verse 30 consists of 3 words, عليها تسعة عشر. Therefore, it becomes clear that the number of words of verse 31 (which discusses the wisdom behind number 19) which is 57 words, equals 19 times the number of words in verse 30. 

8. The letter count from the beginning of Surat Al-Muddathir up to the end of the word عليها (on top of it or in addition to it) of verse 30 [exactly before تسعة عشر  (Nineteen) is mentioned]  is 361 letters, (i.e. 19 x 19).

9. The phrase تسعة عشر (nineteen) in verse 30 consists of 7 letters. In light of the previous piece of information, it becomes clear that the middle letter of this clause is the 365th letter from the beginning of the Sura, which is the number of days of the year. Is this related to Astronomy?

10. “By the moon and by the night as it retreats and by the dawn as it shineth forth. This is but one of the mighty portents. A warning to mankind.” (74: 32-36) Why swearing by the moon, the night and the dawn, or rather by the moon, the earth and the sun? Is this related to the number 19? In fact, yes, because there is more than one relationship among the sun, the earth and the moon, based on number 19.

 11. Verse 31 of Surat Al-Muddathir, which consists of 57 words which is 12.5 times the average of the word count for each verse in Surat Al-Muddathir.  This (12.5 times) is, by far, the highest such ratio in the Holy Quran. Verse 20 of Surat Al-Muzzamel (Chapter 73), whose word count is 78, which 7.8 times the average word count of each verse of Surat Al-Muzzamel. Verse 282 of Surat Al-Baqara (Chapter 2), is the longest verse in the Holy Quran, and it consists of 128 words which is 6 times the average word count of each verse of Surat Al-Baqara.

So, what does it mean that the word count for the first 19 verses of Surat Al-Muddathir is 57 (i.e.  19 x 3) and the word count for the first 30 verses is 95 ( i.e. 19 x 5)? What does it mean that the letter count from the beginning of Surat Al-Muddathir until the word عليها (on top of it or in addition to it) is 361 (i.e. 19 x 19), and that this is followed immediately by the number 19? What does it mean that verse 31 - which points out the wisdom of specifying the number 19 and is relatively the longest verse in the whole Quran - consists of 19×3 words and is divided into  (19 x 2) + 19 words. What does it mean that the number of words comprising it equal the number of words comprising the first 19 verses, and that this number is 19 times the number of words in عليها تسعة عشر (which means "on top of it (or in addition to it) is nineteen")? And why is it the last verse in the Quran consists of the number 19 and its multiples? What does it mean that the number 19 is mentioned in the first revelation of Apostlehood? What does it mean that this number is the only number in the Holy Quran that is discussed in detail? And what does it mean that Allah swears by the moon, the Earth and the sun, and the fact that we have discovered several astronomical links between these three based on the number 19? It seems that, indeed, “This is but one of the mighty portents.”

 

Chapter 2

The Miracle of the Serial Order of the Suras in the Holy Quran

 

Since the early centuries, Muslims have paid attention to numbers in the Quran. Dr Ghanem Al-Hamad, the verifier of Al-Bayan fi A'd Aye Quran (‘Clarification regarding Counting of the Verses of the Quran’)  a book by Abu Amru Al-Dani mentions 36 books on the Science of Quranic Numbers, from Kitab Al-‘Adad (‘The Book of Numbers’) by Ata’ Ibn Yasaar (103 AH) to Zahr Al-Ghurar fi ‘Adad Ayat Al-Suwar (‘The First Blossoms of Verse Count’) by the Andalusian scholar Ahmad A-Salami (747 AH). This interest has not flourished sufficiently through the ages to yield definitive results, but as the Quran is the word of God Almighty who created and perfected the universe and counted everything, it is to be expected that the book will be different from conventional books written by fallible humans. However, with the ascent of human consciousness, people today are more capable of criticism and evaluation through modern sciences and other means.

Scholars have differed in their understanding of the order of Quranic Suras. The majority have maintained that the order of Suras is Tawqifi, that is by command of the Apostle (Peace be upon him) on the instruction of the Angel Jibreel (Gabriel) . Sayuuti believed that the order was an act of revelation except Suras 8 (‘Anfal’) and 9 (‘Tauba’). Some believe that it was the independent judgement of the Prophet’s companions, though the evidence for this is insubstantial and this matter is not for elaboration in this context. We merely observe that the opinion that regards the order of the Suras as not being a revelation is based on implicit evidence, while belief in the order inspired by revelation rests on direct evidence. In any case, our intention is to present mathematical evidence to support the revelation viewpoint and, in fact, we may even go beyond that to assert that the order of verses is an act of revelation that is in itself evidence for Prophethood and an aspect of miracle.

There are many publications in contemporary intellectual scholarship related to Quranic miracles. These include the rhetorical, the scientific, the legal, etc. However, what we today call the “numerical miracle” is still controversial, which is why it has been out of favor with scholars and researchers. This is despite the fact that there have been partly successful attempts to study the subject, such as the one by Abdul Razaq Nawfal and the Jordanian researcher Abdullah Jalghoom in his book ‘The Secrets of the Order of the Quran: A Contemporary Reading’. Here, we will acquaint the reader with the most important points made in his book and with what we have done by way of development and follow up.

Point 1 

The total number of Suras (chapters) in the Quran is 114. If we add up the serial numbers of these Suras in this way: (1+2+3+…. +114), the sum total will be 6555. Alternatively, you can use the following mathematical formula: (N+1) x (N / 2). Therefore, we can the following calculation: (114+1) x (114/ 2) = 6555.

The question here is: Is there a relationship between this sum and the total number of Quranic verses, which is 6236?

 By investigation, Islamic researcher, Jalghoom, has found that there are 60 Suras  whose total number of verses is an even number . For example, the second Sura (Al-Baqara) has 286 verses; the fourth Sura (Al-Nisa) has 176, and so on. The number of Suras with an odd number of verses is 54. The first Sura (Al-Fatihah) has seven verses; the ninth Sura has 129, and so on. 

Comment  

We looked into Jalghoom’s results and found them to be correct. Now, why 60 and 54? This has been found to relate to the number 19 which is discussed further in this book and in our book ‘The Miracle of the Number 19 in the Holy Quran: Premises awaiting Outcomes’.

 

Point 2

The total number of Suras (chapters) in the Quran is 114. Consider the following facts: 114 = 19 x 6 = 60 + 54 (where  60 = 10 x 6 and  54= 9 x 6 ). Jalghoom found the 60 Suras  whose total number of verses is an even number fall into two categories: 30 Suras  have an even serial number, while the other 30 have an odd serial number. As for the 54 Suras whose total number of verses is an odd number, 27 of them have an even serial number, and the other 27 have an odd serial number.

 Comment

 By investigation, we found the result to be correct. Here is an illustrative figure:

                   (114) Suras           

        (54)                 (60)

(27)      (27)       (30)     (30) 

Suppose that the 60 Suras with an even number of verses were as the first 60 Suras in the Quran, you would have 30 Suras odd serial-numbered and 30 Suras even serial-numbered. Similarly, if the 54 Suras with an odd number of verses were placed as the last 54 Suras in the Quran, there would be 27 even serial-numbered Suras and 27 odd serial-numbered Suras.

We would get the same result by reversing the previous order, i.e. by placing the 54 Suras with an odd number of verses at the beginning of the Quran, and placing 60 Suras with an even number verses at the end of the Quran. Without these two orders, it would be difficult to get the results shown in the figure above. Although the even-numbered and odd-numbered Suras are not arranged in the Quran according to this hypothetical order, yet the result surprisingly and unexpectedly is the same in the actual order of verses in the Quran as in the hypothetical case discussed above.

Consequently, there are 57 Homogenous Suras: (a) in which the number of verses is even, and the serial number of each Sura is even; or (b) in which the number of verses is odd, and the serial number of each Sura is odd. On the other hand, there are 57 Heterogeneous Suras (30+27).

 Examples of Homogenous Suras:

The first Sura, ‘Al-Fatiha (Chapter 1):         Sura's Serial Number: 1           Number of verses: 7                          odd - odd ( 1 is an odd number; 7 is an odd number)

The second Sura, ‘Al-Baqara (Chapter 2):  Sura's Serial Number: 2           Number of verses: 286                      even - even ( 2 is an even number; 286 is an even number)

The fourth Sura, ‘Al-Nisa (Chapter 4):        Sura's Serial Number: 4           Number of verses: 176                      even - even ( 4 is an even number; 176 is an even number)

 

 Examples of Heterogeneous Suras:

The third Sura, ‘Aal-I-Imran (Chapter 3):   Sura's Serial Number: 3          Number of verses: 200                       odd - even ( 3 is an odd number; 200 is an even number)

The fifth Sura, ‘Al-Ma’ida (Chapter 5):      Sura's Serial Number: 5           Number of verses: 120                      odd - even ( 5 is an odd number; 120 is an even number)

The sixth Sura, ‘Al-An’aam (Chapter 6):    Sura's Serial Number: 6           Number of verses: 165                      even - odd ( 5 is an even number; 165 is an odd number)

 

Point 3 

Now, if we add up the serial numbers of the 57 homogenous Suras and add this to the number of verses in these homogenous Suras, we find that the total is 6236. In other words, it is equal to the total number of verses in the Quran. 

By the same token, if we add up the serial numbers of the 57 heterogeneous Suras and add this to the number of verses in these heterogeneous Suras, we find that the total is 6555. In other words, it is equal to the total of the serial numbers of all Suras of the Quran.

 Comment 

We investigated the matter and found the results to be correct. Putting the result in mathematical form we find:

 Serial numbers of the homogenous group + number of verses in same group = total number of Quranic verses = 6236

 Serial numbers of the heterogeneous group + number of verses in same group = total of serial numbers of Quranic Suras = 6555

Thus, we can see that there is a relationship between the serial number of each Sura and the number of verses it contains in such a way that we will have co-ordinates suggesting a correlation between the serial number of the Sura and the number of verses it contains. This is the same for all Suras of the Quran.

To perceive the depth of this issue, consider that, hypothetically, if there had been just one verse less in any Sura, the whole numerical system of the Quran would fall apart (this is a one of the miraculous methods devised by Allah to protect the integrity of the Quran). For example, if the second Sura had one less verse (making it 285 verses long instead of 286), this would mean that the number of Suras with an odd numbers of verses would be 55 and the number of Suras with even numbers of verses would be 59.

Similarly, if the second Sura had been placed third and vice versa, then the second Sura would be heterogeneous and the third would be homogenous. The total for Sura 2, ‘Al-Baqara’, (286 + 3) would fall in the heterogeneous group and the total for Sura 3, ‘Aal-I-Imran’, (200 + 2) would fall in the homogenous group. The total of the 57 homogenous Suras would no longer be 6236 and the total of the 57 heterogeneous Suras would no longer be 6555. This, of course, applies to any of the 114 Suras in the Quran. In light of this, if we calculate the chances of this happening according to probability theory, we find ourselves facing one of the miracles of the Quran which proves that the order of the Suras and the number of verses is a revelation from Allah ( the Wise and the Almighty).

 

Point 4

 Jalghoom broke down the above law of addition as follows:

 (114+1) x (60  divided by 2) = 3450

 (114+1) x (54  divided by 2) = 3105

                                     Total = 6555

One of the amazing things we find is that the total of the numbers of the 60 even serial-numbered Suras in the Holy Quran is 3450. Thus, the total of the numbers of the 54 odd serial-numbered Suras is 3105 because the sum total has to be 6555 since (1+114) x (114 divided by 2)   is equal to (1+114) x [(60+54) divided by 2].

Comment

After verification, we found the result to be correct. We tried to transpose (switch) Sura 3 and  Sura 17.  We found that the total of the serial numbers of the 60 Suras with an even number of verses including Sura 3 was 3464. The total of the serial numbers of the 54 Suras with an odd number of verses was 3091. Thus, after this transposition (switch), the total of the serial numbers of the 60 Suras with an even number of verses no longer conforms to the mathematical law (1+114) x (60 divided by 2) = 3450. The same applied to Suras with an odd number of verses. This applies to each of the 114 Suras. This is an additional proof that the Quran is structured by God (to protect the integrity of the Quran) in such a way that you cannot even switch the order of the Suras, without messing up the system.

 

Point 5

Jalghoom divides the Quranic Suras with regard to numbers into two equal halves: 1-57 and 58-114. There are 29 odd serial-numbered Suras in the first half of the Holy Quran and thus 28 even serial-numbered ones. In the second half, there are 28 odd serial-numbered Suras, and thus 29 even serial-numbered ones. He found that there are 28 homogenous Suras in the first half and 29 heterogeneous ones, and that there are 29 homogenous Suras in the second half and 28 heterogeneous ones.

Comment

 We verified this and found the results to be correct. There does appear to be a balance between the homogenous and the heterogeneous in the two halves of the Holy Quran.

  

Point 6 

Jalghoom also observed that there are 27 Suras with an even number of verses in the first half of the Holy Quran; and therefore, there are 33 Suras with an even number of verses in the second half. He noted that the total number of verses in the 27 Suras with an even number of verses in the first half is 2690, which is the total of the serial numbers of the 33 Suras with an even number of verses in the second half.  

Comment

We verified this research and found it to be correct. The first half of the Holy Quran has 57 Suras, i.e. 19 x 3 .  If we multiply 10  x 3 , the result is 30 and 9  x 3= 27. Hence we find that there are 27 Suras with an even number of verses and 30 Suras with an odd number of verses. This is when we deal with the first half, but when we deal with the Quran as a whole as above, there are 60 Suras with an even number of verses, i. e. 10 x 6, and 54 Suras with an odd number of verses, i.e. 9 x 6

 

Diagram

  54 + 60  =          6×19    =          114

  27 + 30  =          3×19    =          57

After surveying the important issues of Jalghoom’s findings, we now present some of our observations which can rightly be called both complementary and extensions of this accurate mathematical line of research:

 1.  Sura 57 is Al-Hadid (Iron), which marks the end of the first half of the Quranic Suras. It has 29 verses. If we multiply the serial number of the Sura by the number of verses it contains, the result is 29×57=1653, which is the total number of the serial number of Suras 1-57, i.e. (1+57) x (57 divided by 2) = 1653.

  2. On the basis of Jummal, a system that is used in Semitic languages (including both Arabic and Hebrew) where each letter of the alphabet has a numerical value, we find that the Jummal of the word Al-Hadid is 1+30+8+4+10+4=57, the serial number of ‘Al-Hadid’. As for the word Hadid, its total Jummal is 8+4+10+4=26, the atomic number of iron. The atomic weight of iron is 57. Reflect on this!! 

 3.  Iron has 3 stable isotopes, the atomic weights of which are: 56, 57, and 58. The isotope 57 occurs in the middle as shown.

 4. Related to this, we find that in a book called ‘The Numerical Miracle of the Quran’, Syrian researcher Sidqi Al-Beik calculated that the total frequency of integers (whole numbers) in the Quran is 285. The number "1", for example, occurs 145 times; number 2, 15 times; number 3, 17 times, and so on, adding up to 285. This calculation includes the numbers 309 and 950, which are stated implicitly in the Quran. If we ask what the final number is in the sequence of consecutive numbers that, if added together, equal 285, we find that the nearest integer is 23. (i.e. 1+2+3+…+23= 276). If we multiply the number of integers (285) by this number (23), the result will be 6555, which is the total of the serial numbers of the Quranic Suras. This effectively proves that there is a relationship between the order of Suras in the Quran and numbers in the Quran. In Chapter 6 below, we display the tables that show the frequency of integers. To view the tables, please click here.

5.  The only Sura ending with the word عددا (‘Adad - which means "number") is Surat Al-Jinn: “And takes account of every single thing.” (78:28) The word count of Surat Al-Jinn is 285 so, in other words, the word ‘Adad is the 285th word. 

  

Finally, from this line of research, we come to the following conclusions:

 1.      The order of the Suras must be by revelation because it is not plausible for this mathematical configuration to occur by chance. This is the view of the majority of Sunni Muslim Scholars.

 2.      The number of verses in each Sura is also a revelation (although this does not necessarily mean that other opinions about number are invalid due to the possibility of, for example, different scripts).

 3.      The issues under discussion are contemporary discoveries; and thus, the Quranic miracle appears in a new form. We should note that the world of numbers is the world of facts and that its language is of greater clarity and decisiveness.

 4.      These findings crush the attempts of the Orientalists to doubt the serial order of the Quran was intended to be as such by God.

 5.      Such research might serve as a key to studies that deal with Quranic text away from merely its historical dimension. Of course, we do not intend to overlook the historical dimension, but we add it a mathematical proof.

 6.      The reader will note that the matter is based on objective investigation, rather than subjective judgement.  Therefore, there is no room for rejecting or denying it, unless someone can prove inaccuracy or inappropriateness in the way we applied the numerical analysis or mathematical methods.

 

Chapter 3

The Miracle of the Serial Order of the Suras opening with Abbreviated Letters

 

The Miracle of the Serial Order of the Suras opening with Fawatih (Letters)

Table

الرقم

Sura Number

Sura

Opening

letters

1

2

البقرة

الم

2

3

آل عمران

الم

3

7

الأعراف

المص

4

10

يونس

الر

5

11

هود

الر

6

12

يوسف

الر

7

13

الرعد

المر

8

14

إبراهيم

الر

9

15

الحجر

الر

10

19

مريم

كهيعص

11

20

طه

طه

12

26

الشعراء

طسم

13

27

النمل

طس

14

28

القصص

طسم

15

29

العنكبوت

الم

16

30

الروم

الم

17

31

لقمان

الم

18

32

السجدة

الم

19

36

يس

يس

20

38

ص

ص

21

40

غافر

حم

22

41

فصلت

حم

23

42

الشورى

حم عسق

24

 43

 الزخرف

حم

25

44

الدّخان

حم

26

45

الجاثية

حم

27

46

الأحقاف

حم

28

50

ق

ق

29

68

القلم

ن

 

Most of the Suras in the Quran start with regular meaningful words. However, there are 29 Suras in the Holy Quran that begin with one letter or a small group of separate individual letters (such as: Alif. Lam. Mim; Alif. Lam. Ra) which do not have an agreed upon meaning. These are called luminous letters and interpreters have discussed their possible meanings at length without arriving at any conclusion that is based on any evidence. One widely held opinion is that the Quran consists of letters like these which do not incapacitate you and thus Allah challenges people to produce a similar Quran with the letters available to them. However, generally, “Allah knows better what He means” has become the conventional answer to attempts at interpretation.

Here we do not intend to interpret or explain their meanings, but we do intend to discuss the mathematical configuration of these openings based on the number 19, and thus show, if not why they are significant, then at least how significant they are.

 

A. Introducing Opening Letters (Fawatih)

1.      Out of 114 Suras, there are 29 Suras with opening letters. The ratio of the number of words in them to the number of words in the whole of the Holy Quran is approximately 48%.

 

2.      The total number of different openings is 14, consisting of 14 letters of the alphabet.

 

3.      Out of these 29 Suras, the first to be revealed was Sura 29, which opens with the letter Noon (ن). This opening is not repeated. Sura 50 was revealed next, beginning with the letter Qaf (ق), which is also the beginning of Sura 42. The third revelation was Sura 38, beginning with the letter Sa’ad (ص), which later began Suras 7 and 19. Thus, it is clear that the opening Noon (ن) which was revealed first occurred once; the opening Qaf (ق) which was revealed second occurred twice, while the opening Sa’ad (ص) which was revealed third occurred three times.

 

4.      There are one-letter openings: (ص ,ق , ن) which, as shown above, were the earliest revelations, and this has its significance. There are two-letter openings: (طه, يس, طس, حم); there are three-letter openings: ( الم, الر, طس); there are four-letter openings: (المص,المر), and there are five-letter openings: (كهيعص, حم عسق).

5.      Openings can be classified on the basis of their frequency into:

         a. Openings whose forms occur only once: المص, المر, كهيعص , طه, طس, يس, ص, حم عسق, ق, ن.

         b. Openings occurring more than once: الم, الر, طسم, حم.

        c. Some of the aforementioned openings occur as part of another opening, such as the opening (طس) which occurs in (طسم); the opening (ص) occurs in (كهيعصand المص); and the opening (ق) occurs in (حم عسق).

 

B. The Mathematical Configuration of Openings and their Suras:

1. The first Sura of the 29 Suras with opening letters.is Surat Al-Baqara and its order in the Quran is two (i.e. it is the second Sura in the Quran). The last is Surat Al-Qalam, the 68th Sura. Thus, the number of Suras from Baqara to Qalam is 67. This means that there are 38 Suras between Baqara and Qalam that do not open with luminous letters (67- 29= 38, which is equal to 19 x 2).

 

2. The openings are: الم, المص, الر, المر, كهيعص, طه, طسم, طس, يس, ص,  حم, حم عسق,  قand ن. The letter count in these openings is also 38, i.e. 19 x 2

 

3. The four letter opening المر contains the two openings,  المand الر, and so does المص which contains the openings الم  and ص. However, طسم contains only طس because م is not an opening… and so on. Thus we observe that the occurrence of openings in the 29 Suras is 38, i.e.  19 x 2 .

Here is an illustration of that:

   a.  The opening الم occurs separately or as part of other openings in the following Suras: الم (Sura 2, ‘Al-Baqara’); الم (Sura 3, ‘Aal-I-Imran’);  المص(Sura 7, ‘Al-A’raf’); المر (Sura 13, ‘Ar-Ra’d’); الم (Sura 29, ‘Al-‘Ankabut’); الم (Sura 30, ‘Ar-Rum’); الم (Sura 31, ‘Luqman’); and  الم(Sura 32, ‘As-Sajda’). Thus, there is a total of 8 occurrences.

   b. الر occurs singly or as part of another opening in the following Suras: الر (Sura 10, ‘Yunus’);  الر (Sura 11, ‘Hud’); الر(Sura 12, ‘Yusuf’); المر(Sura 13, ‘Ar-Ra’d’); الر (Sura 14, ‘Ibrahim’) and الر(Sura 15, ‘Al-Hijr’). Thus, there are 6 occurences.

   c.  The opening حم occurs in: حم (Sura 40, ‘Gafir’), حم (Sura 41, ‘Fussilat’), عسق  حم(Sura 42, ‘Ash–Shura’), حم  (Sura 43, ‘Az-Zukhuf’),  حم(Sura 44, ‘Ad-Dhukan’), حم  (Sura 45, ‘Al- Jathiya’) and حم (Sura 46, ‘Al- Ahqaf’). Thus, the total is 7 occurrences.

   d.طس  occurs singly or as part of another opening in the following Suras طسم :(Sura 26, ‘Ash-Shu’ara’), طس (Sura 27, ‘An-Naml’) and طسم (Sura 28, ‘Al- Qasas’). Thus, it occurs 3 times.

   e. طسم occurs in طسم :(Sura 26, ‘Ash-Shu’ara’) and  طسم(Sura 28, ‘Al- Qasas’) and thus it occurs twice.

   f. ص occurs in the following Suras:المص  (Sura 7, ‘Al-A’raf’), كهيعص (Sura 19, ‘Mariam’) and ص (Sura 38, ‘Sa’ad’). Thus, it occurs three times.

   g ق occurs in the following Suras: حم عسق (Sura 42, ‘Ash–Shura’) and ق (Sura 50, ‘Qaf’). Thus, it occurs twice.

   h. The following openings occur only once: المص  (Sura 7, ‘Al-A’raf’), المر (Sura 13, ‘Ar-Ra’d’),  قهيعص(Sura 19, ‘Mariam’), طه (Sura 20, ‘Ta-Ha’),  يس(Sura 36, ‘Ya-Sin’),  حم عسق (Sura 42, ‘Ash–Shura’) and ن (Sura 68, ‘Noon’). Thus, the total is 7. Thereby, it is shown that the total is 38, i.e. 19 x 2 . The following table illustrates the point:

 

ن

ق

حم عسق

حم

ص

يس

طس

طسم

طه

كهيعص

 المر

الر

 المص

الم

 Total

 

1

2

1

7

3

1

3

2

1

1

1

6

1

8

Frequency

 

4. There are 14 letters that make up the openings: ا , ل, م , ص,ر , ك, ه , ي , ع , ط,س , ح ,  ق and ن. Each of these 14 letters is a constituent of openings as follows:

(أ) : المر ، المص ، الم ،  الر.

(ل): المر، المص، الم، الر.

(م): المر، المص، الم، طسم، حم عسق، حم.

(ص): المص، كهيعص، ص.

(ر): الر، المر.

(ك): كهيعص.

(هـ): كهيعص، طه.

(ي): كهيعص، يس.

(ع): كهيعص، حم عسق.

(ط): طه، طسم، طس.

(س): طسم، طس، يس، حم عسق.

(ح): حم، حم عسق.

(ق): حم عسق،ق.

(ن): ن.

Thus the total number of these openings which contain each of the 14 letters is 38 (which is equal to 19 x 2).

5. The serial number of Surat Mariam is 19, which distinguishes it from the others in the order. If we refer to the order of Suras with opening letters as shown, we will find that Surat Miriam is the 10th Sura with opening letters. In other words, it is followed by 19 Suras with such openings.

 

6.   If we write down the openings according to their occurrence in the order of the Quran counting them only once, we find that the letter count of the openings until the opening of Surat Mariam is 19. We find that the number of letters in the openings after the opening of Surat Mariam is also 19. We have already noticed that the position of Surat Mariam in the order of Suras in the Quran is 19, followed by 19 Suras with openings. See table below:

TABLE

Openings ordered without repetition

 الم

 المص

 الر

 المر

 كهيعص

 طه

 طسم

 طس

 يس

 ص

 حم

 حم عسق

 ق

 ن

 

Letter count in opening

3

4

3

4

5

2

3

2

2

1

2

5

1

1

 

Total

   19

                                                    19

=38

 

7.  The order of the 29 Suras with opening letters in the Quran indicates that only Surat Mariam and Sura 38, ‘Sa’ad’ (ص) have the serial number 19 or one of its multiples (i.e. 38). By reference to the order of Suras with openings we find that there are 19 Suras after Surat Mariam and 19 before Surat Sa’ad, as said above.

8. The opening of Surat Mariam (كهيعص) begins with the letterك , which is not repeated in the Suras with openings, and this opening ends with the letter ص. That is,  كrepresents Surat Mariam which is Sura 19 and ص represents Sura 38 (i.e. 19  x 2). It is also noticeable that in the opening of Surat Mariam (كهيعص) that the letter ك does not occur except in Mariam and ه occurs only in طه and ي occurs only in يس, whileع  occurs only inعسق .

9. The one-letter openings are: ,ق , ص and ن. The serial order of Surat Sa’ad ( ص ) in the Quran is 38 ( i.e. 19 x 2). The serial order of Surat Qaf ( ق ) is 50. The serial order of Surat Noon ( ن ) is 68. Thus, if we start counting beginning with Surat ق, we will find that Surat ن will be the 19th Suras.

10. With reference to the Quran, we find that in each of the following openings is a verse: الم, المص, كهيعص, طه, طسم, يس حمand  حم عسقن.  These are the openings of the 19 Suras of the 29, but the remaining 10 Suras start with openings which are not verses: الر, المر, طس,ص , ق and ن.

11. The Suras opening with الر and  المرform a series in the order (10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15). The openings of these 6 Suras are: الر,الر ,الر , المر, الر andالر . The letter count of these openings is 19. It will be noted that the opening of Surat Ar-Ra’d (The Thunder) (المر) contains الر - as discussed earlier – and that the letter count of the openings through  الرis 13, the serial order of Surat Ar-Ra’d  in the Quran. The Sura was given this name because of the occurrence of the word  الرَّعْدُ  (Ra'd) which means "thunder" :

وَيُسَبِّحُ الرَّعْدُ بِحَمْدِهِ وَالْمَلاَئِكَةُ مِنْ خِيفَتِهِ وَيُرْسِلُ الصَّوَاعِقَ فَيُصِيبُ بِهَا مَن يَشَاءُ وَهُمْ يُجَادِلُونَ فِي اللّهِ وَهُوَ شَدِيدُ الْمِحَالِ  “Nay, thunder hymneth His praises and so do the angels for awe of Him. He launcheth the thunderbolts and smiteth with them whomsoever He will while they dare to dispute about Allah concerning the might of His wrath.” (13:13)

This is Verse 13 of the Sura and it contains 19 words. What is also noteworthy is that Surat Ar-Ra’d is in Part 13 of the Quran. The number of verses in the Sura is 43, which means that its verses end with 43 words, called “commas”, such as:يومنون or تومنون. We have already noted that there are 13 “commas” in Surat Ar-Ra’d ending with the letters that make up the word الرَّعْدُ   Ra’d (the lettersر, ع and د). Eight endings end with the letter ر, one ends with ع, and four end with د.

The opening of Ar-Ra'd (المر) contain the openings  المand الر. If we arrange the openings containing الر, الم and المر in the order followed in the Quran, we will find that the number of these openings is 13 : الم, الم, المص,الر ,الر ,الر , المر, الر,الر ,الم , الم, الم and الم. Notice that the opening of Surat Ar-Ra’d (المر) lies in the middle of the order, preceded by 6 Suras and followed by 6 Suras.

The word رعد (Ra’d – thunder) occurs twice in the Quran. The first time is in verse 19 of Surat Al-Baqara where the word count of verse 19 is 19 and the letter count is 83. The second occurrence is in verse 13 of Surat Ar-Ra’d where the word count is again 19 and the letter count is again 83. This coincidence is worth our attention especially when we learn that the frequency of the letters ر, ع and د in the verse 19 of Surat Al-Baqara equals the frequency of the letters in the verse 13 of Surat Ar- Ra’d . Also the total frequency of the letters of رعد in the word Al-Ra’d in the Al-Baqara verse equals the total frequency of the letters in the Ra’d verse. This correspondence between the two becomes even more noticeable when we learn that the frequency of the letters at the opening of Al-Baqara (الم) in the Baqara verse equals the total frequency of the letters at the opening of Surat Ar-Ra’d (المر) in the Ra’d verse. What does this coincidence mean? What is the secret behind the repetition of the word صواعق (claps of thunder) in only two verses when the words رعد and صواعق occur only in these two verses?

12. There is another group that comes as a series and, in fact, they were revealed as a series as ordered in the Quran. These are the Suras opening with حم, whose numbers are: 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45 and 46. These are the seven Suras with the openings حم, حم, حم عسق, حم, حم, حم and حم. In the same way that المر was different from the rest of the openings in the الر group, حم عسق is different from the rest of the openings in the حم group, noting that المر contains الر and حم عسق contains حم. There is a difference between the two in that حم is a verse and عسق is another verse, which means that if we multiply the number of letters of   حمwhich open 7 Suras by the number of letters in حم عسق , we find that the total is (2 x7) + 5 = 19 letters.

 

13.  There are 29 Suras with opening letters and if we order these Suras according to their occurrence in the Quran, we find that Surat Al-Ankaboot is the middle Sura, preceded by 14 Suras and followed by 14. It is important to note that this Sura positioned in the middle of the group is also number 29 in the Quran's order. We should also note that the verse in which Ankaboot is mentioned has 19 words. It is verse 41, which means that it is followed by 28 verses through to the end of the Sura. In other words it is in the middle position of the last 57 verses of Surat Al-Ankaboot, which is the position of Surat Al-Ankaboot with respect to the first 57 Suras of the Holy Quran, where it is preceded by 28 Suras and followed by 28. Also the verse count of Sura 57 is 29. Reflect on this!!

 

We have said that Surat Al-Ankaboot is located in the middle of the 29 Suras with opening letters and that it is Sura 29 in the Quran. It seems that it is medial from more than one angle. (See Table)

a.    There is a group of 3 Suras immediately preceding Surat Al-Ankaboot (numbers 26, 27, 28) that open with طسم,  طسand طسم and there is also another group of three Suras directly after Surat Al-Ankaboot (numbers 30, 31, 32) that open with الم, الم andالم .

b.   If we count 5 Suras before Surat Al-Ankaboot, Sura 19 is the 5th. Counting 5 Suras after, Sura 38 (19×2) is also the 5th.

c.   If we count 8 Suras before Surat Al-Ankaboot, the 8th Sura will be Surat Ar-Ra’d, which opens with المر, the word that is distinctive among the الر openings. If we count 8 Suras after, the 8th Sura will be Surat Al-Shura, whose opening isحم عسق which is distinctive among the  حمopenings. All this means that Surat Al-Ankaboot has both a distinguished and medial among the Suras with openings.

14.   In a previous research looking at the relationship of each Sura in the Quran and the number of verses it contains, Jalghoom found that there were 57 homogenous Suras with respect to their number of verses and serial numbers. (i.e. odd/odd or even/even). When he divided the Quranic Suras into two sections (1-57 and 58-114) he found that there are 28 homogenous Suras in the first half and 29 heterogeneous ones. In the second half the ratio was reversed. In the 29 Suras with openings, there are 14 homogenous Suras and 15 heterogeneous ones. This means that there is some balance when we deal with the Quran as a whole, when we deal with it by halves, and when we deal with a group such as the group with openings.

This is a reflection on Suras with openings with regard to their order, and this order is proposed as an introduction to the frequency of letters in Suras opening with abbreviated letters. We have elaborated on this in our book ‘The Miracle of the Number 19 in the Holy Quran: Premises Awaiting Outcomes’, where it became clear to us that there is a well-knit mathematical configuration related to the frequency of letters occurring in openings on the basis of what we might call the “chemistry of letters”.

To conclude, we would like to draw attention to the fact that this is only one of many mathematical possibilities related to the order of the Suras. The miraculous nature of the Quran increases when viewed from all these angles.

 

 

Chapter 4

The Numerical Values of Letters of the Alphabet

  

The Arabic alphabet comprises 29 letters. However, in the Abecedarian alphabet there are 28 because there is considered to be no difference between Hamza and Alif. What concerns us about this Abecedarian order is the link between it and the Jummal numerical values of the letters (the NVL).  The system is common to both Hebrew and Arabic but the Hebrew and Abecedarian Arabic systems only coincide up to the letter ت. After that, Arabic has the extra letters ث, خ, ذ, ض, ظ and غ which can be combined in the mnemonic (though meaningless) phrase thakhath dathagh.

It is not easy trace the origin of the Abecedarian order and the calculation associated with it in Semitic languages because views on it have diverged in such a way that it is difficult to decide which is correct or even to make a choice between them. The Jewish clergy use it extensively, Muslims have used it in historical dating, Sufis have overused it, and fortune-tellers, magicians and sorcerers have used it too. Thus, although the calculation may have had a religious basis it has been later distorted, altered and abused.

The Abecedarian order in North Africa differs slightly from the well-known order which was used in the past and from that which is in current use in the Middle East (same or different). In mnemonic form the latter consists of the following letters: (Arabic)  Abjad Hawaz Hutti Kalamun Saa’fas qurishat thakhath Dathagh. Each letter has a numerical value as shown in the table below:

 

LETTERS

        Letter in Arabic                                 sounds like

                                                                Latin/English letter

Jummal (Gematrical)

NUMERICAL VALUES

ا

a

1

ب

b

2

ج

j

3

د

d

4

ه

h

5

و

w

6

ز

z

7

ح

h

8

ط

t

9

ي

y

10

ك

k

20

ل

L

30

م

m

40

ن

n

50

س

s

60

ع

'a

70 

ف

f

80

ص

s

90

ق

q

100

ر

r

200

ش

sh

300

ت

t

400

ث

th

500

خ

kh

600

ذ

z

700

ض

dh

800

ظ

zh

900

غ

gh

1000

 

In the Jummal (the NVL) it is noticed that there is no difference between the numerical values of Alif and Hamza, because it refers to the Abecedarian, rather than the Alphabetical, letters. This calculation has been used for various purposes – Muslims have used it to date battles, deaths, buildings etc. as mentioned above.

 

Examples of Usage

When Sultan Barquq, a Burji Mamluk, died, a phrase was coined indicating the date of his death. This phrase was في المشمش (fil-mishmish). [It means, literally: “In the apricot (season)” which is very short, so the implication in current usage at least is of transience]. It seems that they chose a humorous phrase, but also the numerical values of the phrase are 80+10+1+30+40+300+40+300. The total is 801, and thus Sultan Barquq died in 801 AH.

Another example is, when a poet called Dalenjawi died, his friend eulogized him in general verses and at the end dated his death with the phrase مات الشعر بعده (maat a-sha’oru ba’da) which means: “Poetry died after him.”  This came after the words “I dated…” which indicated the point at which to begin counting – i.e. after “dated”.  Thus, the date of Dalenjawi’s death is: 40+1+400+1+30+300+70+200+2+ 70+4+5=1123 AH.

It is clear that this use of calculation in chronology is thus not objectionable from a religious viewpoint because it is a matter of convention and is thus permissible. However, the misuse of this system in the areas of fortune telling, magic and sorcery has created negative associations with a system that is not intrinsically negative.

Muhammad Bin Omar Nuwawi Al-Jawi, an interpreter, Sufi and Shafi’i jurist, migrated to Makka and died there in the year 1316 AH. He produced many works, one of which is a two-volume interpretation of the Quran in which he said in the introduction: “I have titled this book to confirm to its date” – مراح لبيد الكسف معفىى قران مجيد. It is clear from these words that he chose a title to conform to the Jummal system to show the date he began writing his book (1304 AH). I have cited this particular example to give evidence of a Muslim scholar’s attitude towards the question of the Jummal system and to show that nothing was found to be wrong in using such a system, even for a book on Quranic interpretation. We have used it for generations so why don’t we reconsider using it again since we have found it to be beneficial.

Another famous Quranic commentator, Baidawi, says in his interpretation of the opening of Surat Al-Baqara that the Prophet (pbuh) was approached by the Jews and he recited to them the opening of Al-Baqara. They calculated the numerical values of the letters of the opening and said: “How can we enjoin a religion that will last only seventy-one years?” The Prophet (pbuh) smiled. They said: “Is there anything else?” He said: المر, الر, المص and they replied that he had confused them and they know longer knew which Faith to follow. Baidawi comments on this Hadith by saying: “His reciting to them in this order and his confirmation of their inference…” Thus, Baidawi considers that the Apostle (pbuh) confirmed their inference.

In Shihab’s commentary on Baidawi’s interpretation he says: “ This Hadith was verified by Bukhari in his history and by Ibn Jarir through Ibn Issac Al-Kalbi… Its chain of narrators is weak.” Thus we cannot rely on Baidawi’s conclusion, though on the other hand the Prophet never said anything that denied that Jummal had a religious basis. What matters is that there is neither evidence for denial nor confirmation. Although we must be careful not to assume that we are building on absolutely solid foundations we find that confirmation is more likely in the light of this weak Hadith. We can prove by induction that the Quran has kept some secrets in certain words and clauses and therefore, we assume that the Quran has used this linguistic convention of the Semitic languages. After all, the Quran was revealed in Arabic!

Since language suggests meanings there is no reason to prevent it from suggesting numerical values. The question is: How can we know that a certain phrase in the Quran carries such a numerical secret? Our answer to this is that this has to be proven either through Islamic legal methods or by reasoning. The reader will find that our approach to this question is new and has nothing to do with the Sufis or others, whether they did the right thing or erred and deviated. We are satisfied that the reader will be convinced by the examples of the Jummal system that we will give that are based only on induction and not hearsay.

Following are examples that open the door for a new direction in Jummal, examples that simply involve calculation based on Quranic vocabulary. It should be pointed out that in our research we are dealing with the Quranic script called Ottoman script, which is regarded by the majority of scholars as a revelation (Tawqifi) in itself, because it was supervised by the Prophet as revealed to him. Me

 

Example 1

The Sacred Mosque (المسجد الحرام) is defined in the Quran as: للذي ببكه مباركا - “at Bakka (Makkah) full of blessing” (3:96). The Jummal of this verse is 1063. The Farthest Mosque (المسجد الاقصى) is described: الذي بركنا حوله - “whose precincts We have blessed” (17:1). The Jummal of this verse is also 1063. We ask, what does it mean that they both have the same numerical value?

 

Example 2

Sura 17, ‘Al-Isra’, the Sura that begins with the second quotation of the first example, is also called Surat Bani Israel (‘The Children of Israel’). The Farthest Mosque is only mentioned once in the Quran, in this position.  The subsequent verses discuss Jewish corruption (إفساد) on earth and their being “elated with mighty arrogance” (17:4) suggesting actual political power (which was not the case at the time of the destruction of the Second Temple in70 CE). This combination of corruption and arrogant power shall happen twice. Each time the corruption ends with the entry of the Jews enemies into Masjid Al-Aqsa, or the Temple. In other words, the mention of Al-Aqsa necessitates mentioning Jewish corruption in the area, once before Islam and once after (the destruction of the Second Temple is discounted for the reason mentioned above). Masjid Al-Aqsa    (المسجد الاقصى) is written in Ottoman script as (المسجد الاقصا), the Jummal value of which is 361 (i.e. 19×19). As discussed above, the number 19 is the root of a Quranic numerical miracle. The phrase Bani Israel (بنو إسرائيل), written in the Ottoman copy as (بنو إسرءيل), also has a Jummal value of 361. (We have explored the further implications contained in this verse in another piece of research entitled ‘The Fall of Israel in 2022').

 

Example 3

Surat Al-Naml (النمل) (The Ants) opens with the two letters طس. The Serial order of this Sura in the Quran is 27 and we have found that the frequency of the letter ط in the Sura is also 27. س on the other hand occurs 93 times in the Sura. 93 happens to be the number of verses in the Sura. Thus, the total frequency of ط  and س is 120, which is the total of the serial number of the Sura plus its number of verses. Finally, the Jummal of the word Naml (نمل) is 120.

 

Example 4

White can be considered to be the basis of all colors because white light can be refracted into the seven colors of the spectrum. If mixed in different proportions these can then create thousands of colors. The Jummal of white (أبيض) is 1+2+10+800 = 813.

The word ابيضت (became white) occurs twice in the Quran. The first occurrence is in verse 107 of Sura 3, the second time in verse 84 of Sura 12. The word تبيض (become white) occurs once in verse 106 of Sura 3. The word الأبيض (the white) occurs in verse 187 of Sura 2 while the word بيضاء (white) occurs 6 times: 7: 108, 20: 22, 26: 33, 27: 12, 28: 32, and 37:46. Meanwhile, the words  (بيض and بيض) occur in verse 27 of Sura 35 and in verse 49 of Sura 37:

Word

Sura

Verse No.

ابيضت

3

107

ابيضت

12

84

تبيض

3

106

الأبيض

2

187

بيضاء

7

108

بيضاء

20

22

بيضاء

26

33

بيضاء

27

12

بيضاء

28

32

بيضاء

37

46

بيض

35

27

بيض

37

49

 

Total

813

If we add together the verse numbers where the words which mean ‘white’ occur, we find that the total is 813 which is also equal to the Jummal of the word ‘white’ (ابيض).

 

Example 5

Surat Al-Hadid ( Iron) is the last Sura in the first half of the Quran and is the only Sura named after a chemical element; this is Iron. Surat Al-Hadid's serial order in the Quran is 57. The Jummal of the word الحديد is 1+30+8+4+10+4 = 57 while the Jummal of the word حديد is 8+4+10+4=26. The atomic weight of iron is 57 and  its atomic number is 26.

It is known in chemistry that the atomic number is the number of neutrons that the nucleus contains and that atomic weight is related to protons plus neutrons.

Some people may say that the atomic weight of iron is 55.8 rather than 57. The fact is that there are 5 iron isotopes, which have atomic weights of 55, 56, 57, 58 and 59. What is noticeable is that Isotope 57 occurs in the middle, while 55.8 is not related to atomic structure, but is an average related to the percentage of the presence of each isotope in nature.

Following are some further remarks that emphasize the special importance of the number 57 in this context:

    a.  The serial order of Surat Al-Hadad is 57 and the number of verses in it is 29. If we multiply 29 by 57, the result is 1653, which is the total of numbers from 1 to 57. (i.e.: 1+2+3+4…+57  = 1653) .

 

    b. The word حديد occurs in the Quran in Sura 22 (‘Al-Hajj’) and Sura 50 (Qaf’) and the word حديدا occurs in Sura 17 (Al-Israa or ‘Bani Israel’). The word الحديد occurs in Sura 18 (Al-Kahf’), Sura 34 (Saba)  and Sura 57. After Surat Al-Hadid itself, the word is not mentioned. Thus the word for iron occurs 6 times in the Quran in 6 different Suras:

- The word حديدا  is the 667th word in in Sura 17.

- The word الحديد  is the 1402nd  word  in Sura 18.

- The word حديد  is the 368th  word in Sura 22.

- The word الحديد  is 177th  word in Sura 34.

- The word حديد is the 183rd word  in Sura 50

- The word الحديد is the 461th word in Sura 57 (Al-Hadid).

 

 Thus the total for all the word positions is: 667+1402+368+177+183+461= 3258 , the square root of which is almost exactly 57 (57.0788 to be precise).

 

Word

Sura

The order of the Word in the Sura

حديدا

17

667

الحديد

18

1402

حديد

22

368

الحديد

34

177

حديد

50

183

الحديد

57

461

 

                                     

3258  Total

 

    c.    The word الحديد in Surat Al-Hadid comes in verse 25 as: “And We sent down iron.” In reply to the implied question as to what the wisdom behind sending down iron is, this line is followed by the answer:  “…In which is material for mighty war as well as many benefits for mankind, that Allah may test who, Unseen, will help Him and his Apostles, for Allah is full of strength, exalted in might.” If we calculate the Jummal of this verse, we find that it is 3263, the square root of which is again almost 57 (57.12 to be precise).

 

Example 6  

There are 29 Suras in the Quran that start with “luminous” letters, four of which begin with the letter ط. These are:  طه(Sura 20);  طسم(Sura 26);  طس(Sura 27); and  طسم  (Sura 28). In the chapter about verse endings in Dr Faadhil Samirra’i’s book ‘Quranic Interpretation’, he says: “Each Sura that begins with a ط begins with a detailed narrative about Musa (Moses) before other narratives. Examples of such Suras are طه in Surat Ta-Ha (Sura 20) and طسم at the beginning of Surat Shu’araa (Sura 26). This pattern does not occur in Suras with other openings. What is held in common among Suras beginning with ط is the detailed story of Musa (Moses) at the beginning (of the Sura)…”

In our research we have noted that the letter ط occurs 19 times in Sura 28 (‘Al-Qasas’). When we read Dr Samirra’i’s words and his observation that Suras beginning with the letter ط elaborate on the story of Moses, we counted the frequency of the mentions of Moses himself and his brother Haroun (Aaron) in Surat Al-Qasas. We found that Moses’ name appeared 18 times and his brother Aaron’s name appeared once, so the total is 19 times. It is worth noting here that among all the Prophets the concurrence between Moses and Aaron is unique – in fact they were commissioned with the message simultaneously. It is also worth noting that Sura 28 mentions no other Prophets’ names except those of Moses and Aaron (peace be upon them).

The numerical value of the letters making up موسى (Musa/Moses) is 116, while that of هارون (Haroun/Aaron) is 261. Thus the total Jummal of both Moses and Aaron together is 377. On the basis of this finding, four observations can be made:

     a- The word count of the verses containing the names موسى and هارون in Sura 28 is 377 which is the same value as the Jummal of the two names together:

Verse No.

76

48

44

43

38

37

36

34

31

30

29

20

19

18

15

10

7

3

Total

Word Count

29

26

13

16

27

18

17

14

19

19

27

18

32

16

38

17

22

9

377

 

    b.     If we refer to ‘The Indexed Dictionary of Quranic Words’ by Muhammad Fuad Abdul-Baqi, we find that the frequency of هارون is 20 occurrences. If we add up the serial numbers of these 20 Suras containing the name هارون (Aaron), we get a total of 377.

 

    c.    In Suras beginning with the letter ط, the name هارون (Aaron) is mentioned a total of seven times. He is mentioned in the following verses: 30, 70, 90 and 92 in Sura 20 (Ta-Ha), which begins with طه  . Aaron is also mentioned in verses 13 and 48 of  Sura 26 (‘Ash-Shu’araa’) which begins with  طسم  . Aaron is also mentioned in verse 34 of Sura 28 (Al-Qasas) which begins with طسم. If we add these verse numbers together, we find that the total is:  30+70+90+92+13+48+34 = 377.

 

   d.   The frequency of the name موسى (Moses) in Suras beginning with ط is 46 times. If we multiply the Jummal of موسى (Moses) by its frequency in Suras beginning with ط , the result is:  116 x 46 = 5336. If we multiply the Jummal of هارون (Aaron) by its frequency in Suras beginning with ط , the result is 261 x 7 = 1827 . Thus, the total of these two figures when added together is 5336 + 1827= 7163 (which is also equal to 19 x 377).

We do not think that the scope of the matter is limited to these four observations. Rather we feel the need to compile the various observations hoping to come up with a law for such cases.

 

Example 7

Allah (swt) says in Sura 15: إِنَّا نَحْنُ نَزَّلْنَا الذِّكْرَ وَإِنَّا لَهُ لَحَافِظُونَ “We have without doubt sent down the message and We will assuredly guard it (from corruption).” (‘Al-Hijr’- 15:9) The Holy Quran has been preserved by Allah (swt) because it has been revealed for all nations until the Day of Judgement. Previous messages (Torah, Gospel, etc.) , however, did not need to be preserved because each Prophet was sent only to his people What is the point in preserving a message that was meant to be valid only for a certain period, for a certain people and for a certain place? (Whereas Prophet Mohammad صلى الله عليه وسلم , because he was intended to be the last Prophet, he was sent to all nations and humankind, not only at his time, but for the years to come until the Day of Judgment. The Quran states that Prophet Mohammad صلى الله عليه وسلم  was sent as a mercy to humankind.)

It makes sense that the above verse that describes the preservation of the Holy Quran is itself preserved in its position in this Sura and in other Suras. There might be more than one mathematical method to show this, but here is one method that illustrates the point that involves a Jummal calculation: 

The theme of this verse is  الذِّكْرَ (the message) because the verse talks about the revelation of the message and its protection. If we look for the word  الذِّكْرَ , which means the Holy Quran in this case, and find those which are prefixed by the definite article ال, we find that the word الذكر in 15:9 is the 63rd word. The next appearance of the word الذِّكْر   is word number 575 in Sura 16. Next, it comes as word number 1103 in Sura 21. After this, it is word number 357 in Sura 25, followed by word number 62 in Sura 36. After this it comes as the 4th word in Sura 38 and finally as word number 63 in the same Sura.

See the following table: 

Sura's Name

Hijr

Nahl

Al-Anbiya

Al-Furqan

Ya-Seen

Sa’ad ص

Sa’ad ص

Total

Serial no. of the Sura

15

16

21

25

36

38

38

189

Order of the Word in the Sura

63

575

1103

357

62

4

63

227

 

2416

Note that the word الذِّكْر in Sura 15 is the 63rd word, as is the second occurrence of the word  الذِّكْر in Sura 38 (Saad ص),  i.e. the first and last appearance. This coincidence might make us stop and ponder upon the relationship between the word الذكر in the first appearance: “We have without doubt sent down the message and We will assuredly guard it [from corruption]” (15:9) and the last: “What! Has the message been sent down to him [of all persons] among us?”(38:8). If we do so,  we to find that:

   a- The first verse of Surat Sa’ad is: “Sa’ad: By the Quran, full of admonition…” In other words, the Sura begins by talking about الذِّكْر , the message.

 

   b- The verse count from 15:9 to 38:8 is 2166 words, which is equal to  114 x 19, where 114 is the number of Suras in the whole Quran. The theme of the verse here is the revelation of the Quran and its protection.

 

   c- Verse 9 of Sura 15 and verse 8 of Sura 38 consist of 19 letters of the Arabic alphabet:

(ء,ا , ب,ح ,ذ ,ر , ز,ش ,ظ ,ع ,ف ,ق ,ك ,ل ,م ,ن , ه,  وand ي), the Jummal of these letters being 2530. If we subtract  from this figure (2530) the Jummal of verse 15: 9 (2416), the result will be 2530 - 2416 = 114, again the total number of Suras in the Quran.

 

   d- As can be seen in the table, if you add up the serial number of the Suras that contain الذِّكْر  and the word number of الذِّكْر  in those Suras, you will be amazed to find that the total equals the Jummal of 15:9, which is 2416  !!!

 

Chapter 5

The Mathematical Miracle and Astronomy

 

The Mathematical Miracle and Astronomy

Sura 74 belongs to the early revelation phase of the Holy Quran and it contains elaboration on the number 19, which has been discussed in a previous chapter. We noted then the oath sworn by Allah in the context of the discourse about the number 19:  إِنَّهَا لَإِحْدَى الْكُبَرِO وَالصُّبْحِ إِذَا أَسْفَرَO وَاللَّيْلِ إِذْ أَدْبَرَO  كَلَّا وَالْقَمَرِ  “Nay, verily by the moon and by the night as it retreats and by the dawn as it shines forth. This is but one of the mighty portents. ” (74: 32-35)

Night and day result from the sun’s relationship to the Earth. But what is the relationship of the sun, the moon and the earth with the number 19? If we refer to astronomy books, we find that there are several relationships. We have discussed these at length in our book ‘The Miracle of the Number 19 in the Holy Quran: Premises Awaiting Outcomes’, but our main concern here is to give some examples relating to the Holy Quran and astronomy without referring to its relation to the number 19 or any other number:

 

Example 1

The solar tropic year is 365.2422 days long, while the lunar tropic year is 354.367. Thus the difference between the two is 10.8752 days. Thus, after 33.58 solar years, the total number of these differences is one solar year, i.e.  (365.2422 divided by 10.8752 = 33.584).

In other words, the lunar year coincides with the solar year at the same starting point every 33.58 years. We can consider each returning point to be one cycle of 33.58 years. In light of this, if we ask in what years of history after the birth of Christ was the 19th cycle, we find that the 19th cycle began in the year 604 CE (AD) and ended in 638. It is noteworthy that the Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم  received his first revelation six years after the start of the 19th cycle in 610 and he died in 632 six years before its end, making the period of Prophet Muhammad's  صلى الله عليه وسلم preaching the message of Islam is the focal point of the 19th cycle.

 

Example 2

When the Earth completes one rotation around the sun, the Earth will have rotated around itself 365 times while the moon will have rotated around the Earth 12 times. That is why astronomers say that the year is solar and the month is lunar. Referring to ‘Indexed Dictionary of Quranic Words’ by Muhammad Fuad Abdul-Baqi, we find that the words for ‘day’ and ‘a day’- يوم and  يوما- occurring in the singular are repeated 365 times, noting that one occurrence of يوم was dropped from the concordance by mistake, a fact that was pointed out in the introduction of the work. We also find that the words for ‘month’ and ‘a month’ - شهر and شهرا - in the singular are repeated only 12 times. Why are the words يوم and شهر counted in the singular?

We think that this goes back to two matters: Firstly, in Arabic a year is 365 يوم (singular), not أيام (plural). Likewise, a year is 12 شهر not شهور. Secondly, a year is one rotation of the earth around the sun and this includes 365 rotations of the Earth around itself and 12 rotations of the moon around the earth and around itself too.

Some people have objected to Abdul Razaq Nawfal not counting the words يومئذ, يومهم and يومكم . This objection is somewhat justified when there are no direct rules for counting. Here, we count يوم and يوما when it is not attached in the script to what follows it. If the word form يومئذ had been written asيوم إذ  we would have counted it. In the light of this, we count the word forms يوم and  يوماbut we do not count يومئذ, يومهم and يومكم because in the Quranic word count we deal with script rather than meaning. Nevertheless, we have noticed that the words يوم and يوما, يومئذ, يومهم and يومكم, and أيام and يومين occur 475 times in the Quran, which is the number of Earth days in 19 days of the sun. The day of any star or planet is its equal to its rotation once around itself. The day of the sun equals 25 days of the Earth so when the sun has rotates once around itself, the Earth will have revolved 25 times around itself. Consequently, when the sun completes 19 rotations around itself, the Earth will have rotated 19 x 25 = 475 times around itself . Thus, 475 is the number of Earth days in 19 days of the sun.

When the Earth rotates once around the sun, it will have rotated 365 times around itself, and the moon will have revolved around itself and the earth 12 times. Each rotation of the Earth around the sun  is called one year. A year, then, is the return of the Earth to the point from which it started rotating around the sun. However, when this return of the Earth occurs, the moon will not have returned to its starting point. Thus, “year” means return of the Earth to its starting point, but not the return of the moon. Astronomers say that the moon and the Earth meet at the same starting point once every 19 years.  In other words, it occurs when the Earth has rotated around the sun 19 times and the moon has rotated around the Earth 235 times, a rotation which astronomers call an “ecliptic cycle”. This ecliptic cycle which occurs once every 19 years has been scientifically used to match the solar and lunar years. Hence, astronomy books about lunar and solar calendars explain the significance of this ecliptic cycle and the number 19.

Every 19 years then, we have the rotations of the Earth and the moon coincide with each other when they return to the same co-ordinate. The word سنة  (year) occurs in the Holy Quran 7 times and سنين (years) occurs 12 times. Thus the total frequency of  سنةand سنين is 19 times. It is worth pointing out at this point that every 19 lunar years contain 7 leap lunar years, which have 355 days, and 12 normal lunar years, which have 354 days.

Thus, when the Earth and the moon turn one rotation around the sun, the result is 365 rotations of the Earth around itself and 12 rotations of the moon around the Earth and around itself. It is, then, a rotation that contains sub-rotations. Similarly, the ecliptic cycle contains 19 sub-rotations of the Earth around the sun and each sub-rotations is called a year which equals about 19.58 lunar years. Hence the words  سنةand  سنينoccur 19 times in the Quran.

We can also illustrate the question in a different way: the words يوم and يوما ( both mean "day") occur 365 times in the Holy Quran which indicates one rotation of the Earth around the sun. Likewise, the wordsشهر  and شهرا (both mean "month") occur 12 times and it is known that a month represents one rotation of the Earth around the sun. This revolution is called سنة (a year). However, when the wordsسنة  and سنين occur 19 times, this seems to be a reference from Allah to the once-in-19-year ecliptic cycle which is not related only to the Earth alone but to the Earth and the moon together. While the concept of اليوم (the day) is well defined with respect to the Earth and with its relationship with the sun, the concept of السنة (a year) is multi-fold, as there are star years, tropic years, perigee years, ecliptic years… the lengths of which vary. Hence, we find that the Quran mentions سنين (years of varying lengths) and not just سنة (year). It is also noticeable that, as mentioned earlier, سنين (years) occurs 12 times in the Holy Quran and that this number is the same as the number of lunar years with even-numbered total days (those years consisting of 354 days each) every 19 lunar years. As for سنة (year), it occurs 7 times, this being the number of lunar  years with odd-numbered total days (those years consisting of 355 days each) which are also called leap lunar years.

 

Example 3

Allah (swt) says in verse 14 of Sura 29 (‘Al-Ankaboot’) regarding Prophet Nuh (Noah), peace be upon him:

 فلبث فيهم ألف سنة إلا خمسين عاما  [He stayed among them a thousand years (سنه) less fifty years (عاما).]

If the point of this holy verse is to say that Nuh (pbuh) stayed with his people for 950 سنة , wouldn’t the meaning be fully understood if the verse simply ended with the word خمسين? Why did God use إلا خمسين عاما in one moment and ألف سنه in the next? Doesn’t this indicate that the concept of السنة differs from that of العام?

 

If we refer to the Holy Quran, we find that there are verses that clearly show the word عام being applied to the lunar year, such as the following verse in Sura 9:

 فلا يقربوا المسجد الحرام بعد عامهم هذا  [So let them (the idolaters) not approach the sacred mosque after this year of theirs.] (Surat At-Tauba, 9: 28)

It is known that this verse talks about pilgrimage, which is connected with the lunar year.

 

The same distinction is made in the verse: إنما النسيء زيادة في الكفر يضل به الذين كفروا يحلونه عاما و يحرمونه عاما “Verily the transposing of a prohibited month is an addition to unbelief: The Unbelievers are led to wrong thereby: for they make it lawful one year, and forbidden another year.” (Quran 9:37). It is known that this verse talks about the Idolaters’ tampering with the order of the Sacred Months, which are months of the lunar year.

If we look for the opposite notation, we find that there is no word سنة in the Quran clearly indicating the lunar year, just as there is no word عام in the Quran clearly indicating the solar year, though this does not necessarily mean that the concept of سنة does not include the concept of lunar year.

It is noticeable that when the Holy Quran intends maximization, it uses the word سنة, such as in the verse: و لبثت فينا من عمرك سنين - “And didn’t you not stay in our midst many years of your life?” (26:18) Also in the verse: إن يوما عند ربك كألف سنة مما تعدون - “A day in the sight of thy Lord is like a thousand years of your reckoning.”(22:47)

In the verse under discussion, the 1000  سنة seems to suggest the length of the period Noah preached. It is known that the solar year is longer than the lunar year so the 50  عاما is used to minimize the thing expected. In any case, we cannot reverse the concept by making سنة suggest the lunar year and عام to suggest the solar year. Since this verse mentions both سنة and عام, it is likely that السنة is solar and العام is lunar.

Astronomers use two different methods to calculate solar years: star year (365.25636 days) and tropic year (365.2422 days). If we take the averages of the star and tropic solar years, the number of days in 1000  سنة is 365,249 days.

Astronomers use two different methods to calculate lunar years: star year (327.85992 days) and tropic year (354.36707 days). If we take the averages of the star and tropic lunar year, the number of days in 50  عام (lunar years) is 17,056 days. Now, we can do the following subtraction: 365,249 –17,056= 348,193 days. This is equal to 953.3 tropic years and 953.28 star years. Thereby it becomes clear to us that Noah stayed 953 سنة, not 950 سنة as might be understood from the first glance. Is there numerical evidence for this conclusion we have come to?

   a.     Sura 71 in the Holy Quran is called Surat Noah. What is the relationship between this Sura and how long he stayed and to the conclusion we have reached above? The reader will be amazed when he does a letter count of Sura 71.The number of letters is 953 letters, which corresponds to the length of Noah’s stay (953 years) according to the above calculations.

 

   b.     The number of occurrences of each letter in Sura 71 is as follows:

 

Letter

ا + ء

ب

ث

ج

ح

خ

Frequency

192

27

6

19

3

10

 

Letter

 

د

 

ذ

 

ر

 

ز

 

س

 

ش

Frequency

25

10

60

4

20

2

 

Letter

 

ص

 

ض

 

ط

 

ظ

 

ع

 

غ

Frequency

4

6

5

2

25

8

 

Letter

 

ف

 

ق

 

ك

 

ل

 

م

 

ن

Frequency

18

21

32

106

77

60

 

Letter

 

ه

 

و

 

ي

 

 

 

Frequency

34

88

55

 

 

 

The total number of letters of this Sura 71(Surat Noah) is: 953

When we check the letter frequency of Surat Noah, we find the letter  ح is repeated 3 times only. It could not have been possible for any of the other letters to be repeated 3 times. What is noticeable is that the number 3 is the difference between 953 (the period Noah actually stayed preaching to his people, as we calculated astronomically above) and 950 (as understood at first glance in Quran 29: 14).

The matter is even more striking when we realize that the letter  ح occurs in this Sura only in the words نوحا, نوح  and  نوح (which are variations of the word Noah). Is the aim to draw attention to the difference between the length of his stay from the first-impression and the real length of his stay? Or are there other secrets related to the world of astronomy and other worlds?!

 

Example 4

Allah SWT says in Sura 18: و لبثوا في كهفهم ثلاث مائة سنين وازدادوا تسعا. قل الله اعلم بما لبثوا So they stayed in their Cave three hundred years and increased by nine (more years). Say: Allah knows best how long they stayed…”(18: 25-26) The length of stay of the People of the Cave as stated in this verse is 309 سنة. While the Quran does not explicitly state the number of the People of the Cave, it states the length of their stay in the cave, then comments by adding: “Allah knows best how long they stayed….” Is this comment intended to emphasize the reliability of this number at a time when claims and opinions proliferate/are proliferating? Or is there some other aim? The majority of interpretations take the first view, but is it not possible that the clause “Allah knows best how long they stayed” hints that Allah knows best about the truth of this number 309, its meaning and secrets, and the wisdom behind the period the People of the Cave stayed?!

Many interpreters, past and modern, maintain that 300 solar years are equal to 309 lunar years. This means to them that وازدادوا تسعا is meant to show the increase that occurs when you convert 300 solar years into lunar ones. As we have indicated above in Example 3, the tropic solar year is 365.2422 and the tropic lunar year is  354.367:

i.e.: (365.2422 x 300) divided by 354.367 = 309.2 lunar years

When we talk in terms of years, the fractions amounting to 9 years will be insignificant. These interpretations are possibly what the Quranic text suggests. We, in the Noon Center, have the following observations:

1. The 300 solar years comprise 109572.66 days while the 300 lunar years comprise 106310.1 days. This means the difference is 3262.56 days. This number of days is closer to 9 solar years than 9 lunar years. This means that the People of the Cave stayed 300 solar years, i.e. 300 lunar years with 9 solar years added to them. The number 300 stays the same, and the addition comes as a result of the difference between the concepts of solar and lunar year. The addition, then, is 9 solar years.

2. Allah SWT says of Noah (peace be upon him) that he stayed among them one thousand years less fifty…and we have said that the concept of السنة differs from that ofالعام . Our investigation has led us to note that the length of his stay was 953 solar years. During this period, a process of subtraction occurs, while during the stay of the people of the cave a process of addition occurs, related to the solar and lunar years. Our investigation has led us here too to the conclusion that the length of the stay was 300 solar years, i.e. 300 lunar years with the difference of 9 solar years added to it.  What may suggest this difference is the word تسعا (nine), i.e. years. If Allah had said تسعة, then the intended word would be  عوام[because in Arabic grammarتسعا  is followed by a feminine noun form while تسعة is followed by a masculine form. The word  سنةis feminine while عام is masculine. This remark may support our previous remarks on this subject.

3. The name of Sura 18 shows the importance of the narrative about the People of the Cave in the Sura. The story starts with verse 9: “Or dost thou reflect that the People of the Cave and of the Inscription…” As for the length of their stay, it is stated in verse 25: “So they stayed in their cave 300 years and increased by nine (more years).” In the language of numbers, if we start the word count from the beginning of the story (verse 9), we find that the word coming after the phrase “so they stayed in their cave” is the 309th word. Reflect on this?!


 

                                                                                                                      Chapter 6

The Significance of Number in Sura 72: ‘Al-Jinn’

 

The Significance of Number in Sura 72: ‘Al-Jinn’

In his book ‘The Numerical Miracle of the Quran’, the Syrian writer Sidqi Al-Beik counted the number of integers in the Holy Quran and found them to be 285. The following table shows his findings:

Integer

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Frequency

145

15

17

12

2

7

24

5

4

 

Integer

10

11

12

19

20

30

40

50

60

Frequency

9

1

5

1

1

2

4

1

1

 

Integer

70

80

99

100

200

300

Frequency

3

1

1

6

2

1

 

 Integer

309

950

1000

2 000

3000

5000

50,000

100,000

Frequency

1

1

8

1

1

1

1

1

 

After checking with the 'Indexed Dictionary of the Holy Quran’ by Mohammed Fuad Abdul-Baqi, we found Albeik’s results to be correct, noting the following points:

1.      In this result we relied on the accuracy of this Dictionary.

 

      2.     The number "one" occurred in the Holy Quran in the following forms: واحد,واحدة, أحد andإحدى .

3.      The word أحد occurs in the concordance 33 times, but in fact the frequency is 32 times because أحد عشر كوكبا is counted in the frequency of أحد عشر (11, which is literally one and ten).

4.      The phrase ثلاث مائة سنين وازدادوا تسعا in Sura 50 (‘Al-Qaf’) contains the number 300 and the number 9 directly, but the number 309 is the one that registers in the mind and is, in fact, the one intended because the People of the Cave stayed 309 years. Indeed, as discussed at the end of the previous chapter, the word that follows the phrase

و لبثوا في كهفهم  (Quran 18:25) is the 309th word if we start the word count from the beginning of the story of the People of the Cave. (there is no number five in the text)   

5.      With reference to Noah, the verse فلبث فيهم ألف سنة إلا خمسين عاما  mentions the number 1000 and the number 50 directly. However, the number 950 is the one that registers in the mind and is, in fact, the one intended. Indeed, Prophet Noah stayed with his people preaching for 950 years or close to that number as we explored in the previous chapter. We have also shown in a previous study relating to the letter count of Sura 72.

 6.      We have mentioned that the number of integers in the Holy Quran is 285, a number which is equal to 19×15.We have previously noted in more than one study the relation of this number 285 to various numerical issues.

  

Sura 72 and its Relationship to the Numbers 285 and 19

Sura 72 is the only Sura in the Holy Quran which ends with the word عددا (which means "number"), occurring in the verse و احصى كل شيء عددا. So, what is the relation of this word to the number of integers in the Quran? We find the answer lies in the number of words in Sura 72, i.e. 285 words. The verse count of Sura 72 is 28 verset. This means that the number of verse endings in the Sura is also 28. A verse ending or fasila (plural fawasel) is the word that comes at the very end of each verse. The verse endings of Sura 72 are:عجبا , أحدا, ولدا, شططا, كذبا, رهقا, أحدا, شهبا, رصدا, رشدا, قددا, هربا, رهقا, رشدا, حطبا, غدقا, صعدا, أحدا, لبدا,أحدا , رشدا , ملتحدا, أبدا, عددا,أمدا ,أحدا , رصدا andعددا . What is noticeable is that there are 27 endings, each consisting of 4 letters except for one ending which is made up of 6 letters (ملتحدا). This means that the number of letters comprising these endings is (4×27) +6= 114 (i.e. 6×19) which is the number of chapters in the Holy Quran. This also means that the last letter of the word عددا is the 114th letter. Is this a matter of chance that the word عددا combines indicating both the number of integers in the Holy Quran and the number of chapters contained therein?

So that the readers may not think the aforementioned finding is sheer chance, we must draw their attention to the following observations:

1.      The number of verse endings of Sura 72 is 28. If we omit the repeated endings, we find that the number of endings is 19.

2.      The Arabic alphabet has 29 letters. It is noticeable that the unrepeated 19 endings in Sura 72 consist of 19 letters of the alphabet.

3.      The syllable دا occurs in the 28 endings 19 times. 

4.      Sura 72 begins with “Say: It has been revealed to me that a company of Jinns listened to the Quran. They said…” The discourse continues through the words of Jinn up to verse 19, then it shifts to that between Allah and the Apostle from: “Say: I do no more than invoke my Lord…”

5.      By referring to ‘Indexed Dictionary of the Holy Quran’, we find that the word جن (Jinn) occurs, before Sura 72, 19 times, but it is not mentioned after Sura 72 except in the form الجنه

6.      We said earlier, the word عددا (number) is the 285th word of Sura 72 and the last letter of this word, the arabic letter "ا " , is the 114th letter of the letters making up the verse endings in Sura 72. The matter becomes more remarkable when we discover that the total frequency of the letters  ع, د, د, ا  in Sura 72 is = 37+54+54+216 = 361 , which also equals 19×19. Is it mere coincidence that the word عددا contains the number of numbers mentioned in the Holy Quran 285 (19×15), the number of Quranic chapters 114 (19× 6), and the number 361 (19×19) ?! So, why the word عددا ?! 

It was pointed out earlier that there are 19 unrepeated endings of verses in Sura 72. What is noticeable is the fact that 10 of these endings are repeated 23 times in the verse endings of Sura 18:عجبا , أحدا, ولدا, شططا, كذبا, رشدا, ملتحدا, أبدا, عددا andأمدا  .The two endingsشططا  andأمدا  each occur only twice throughout the whole Quran in Suras 18 and 72. What is noticeable is that there are 91 endings in Sura 18 each one consisting of 4 letters as is the case with the majority of Sura 72 verse endings. This means that there are 19 endings in Sura 18 which do not consist of 4 letters.

These numerical observations invite us to check the meanings of the two Suras more carefully. At a quick glance, we find that Sura 18 begins with a protest against those who claim that God had a son: مَّا لَهُم بِهِ مِنْ عِلْمٍ وَلَا لِآبَائِهِمْ كَبُرَتْ كَلِمَةً تَخْرُجُ مِنْ أَفْوَاهِهِمْ إِن يَقُولُونَ إِلَّا كَذِبًا   “And to warn those who say: Allah hath begotten a son. No knowledge have they of such a thing, nor had their fathers. It is a grievous thing that issues from their mouths as a saying. What they say is nothing but falsehood!” (18:5) .

This is also what we find in Sura 72:

 وَأَنَّهُ تَعَالَى جَدُّ رَبِّنَا مَا اتَّخَذَ صَاحِبَةً وَلَا وَلَد    

وَأَنَّهُ كَانَ يَقُولُ سَفِيهُنَا عَلَى اللَّهِ شَطَطًا

وَأَنَّا ظَنَنَّا أَن لَّن تَقُولَ الْإِنسُ وَالْجِنُّ عَلَى اللَّهِ كَذِبًا

And exalted is the majesty of our Lord: He has taken neither a wife nor a son. There were some foolish ones among us who used to utter extravagant lies against Allah; And we thought that humans and jinn would never tell a lie against Allah. ” (72: 3-5) .

 

It is clear that each of the  above two Suras begins with denial of God having a son. It is noticeable from the numerical point of view that the total frequency of the letters making up the word ولدا (son) in Sura 72 is = 216 + 54 + 115 + 72 = 457 letters which is also the total number of letters constituting verse 110 which is the last verse in Sura 18:

قُلْ إِنَّمَا أَنَا بَشَرٌ مِّثْلُكُمْ يُوحَى إِلَيَّ أَنَّمَا إِلَهُكُمْ إِلَهٌ وَاحِدٌ فَمَن كَانَ يَرْجُو لِقَاءَ رَبِّهِ فَلْيَعْمَلْ عَمَلاً صَالِحًا وَلاَ يُشْرِكْ بِعِبَادَةِ رَبِّهِ أَحَدًا

 “Say: I am but a man like yourselves (but) the inspiration has come to me that your God is one God. Whoever expects to meet his Lord, let him work righteousness, and, in the worship of his Lord, admit no one as partner.” (18:110)

 

Following Sura 18  is Sura 19 (Mariam), whose serial order (meaning 19) among the Suras of the Quran is significant because it describes the Messiah’s (Jesus) birth and denies the claimed sonship attributed to him:

ذَلِكَ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ قَوْلَ الْحَقِّ الَّذِي فِيهِ يَمْتَرُون

مَا كَانَ لِلَّهِ أَن يَتَّخِذَ مِن وَلَدٍ سُبْحَانَهُ إِذَا قَضَى أَمْرًا فَإِنَّمَا يَقُولُ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ

“Such was Jesus the son of Mary: (it is) a statement of truth about which they vainly dispute. It is not befitting to the majesty of Allah that He should beget a son. Glory be to Him!”( 19: 34-35).

In light of the aforementioned numerical remarks about Sura 72, we felt we needed to reconsider the interpretation of the last three verses of Sura 72:

عَالِمُ الْغَيْبِ فَلَا يُظْهِرُ عَلَى غَيْبِهِ أَحَدًا

إِلَّا مَنِ ارْتَضَى مِن رَّسُولٍ فَإِنَّهُ يَسْلُكُ مِن بَيْنِ يَدَيْهِ وَمِنْ خَلْفِهِ رَصَدًا

لِّيَعْلَمَ أَن قَدْ أَبْلَغُوا رِسَالَاتِ رَبِّهِمْ وَأَحَاطَ بِمَا لَدَيْهِمْ وَأَحْصَى كُلَّ شَيْءٍ عَدَدًا

 “He alone knows the Unseen, nor does He make anyone acquainted with His Unseen except an apostle whom He has chosen. And then He makes a band of watchers march before him and behind him in order that He may know that they have truly brought and delivered the messages of their Lord: And He surrounds (all the mysteries) that are with them, and counts the number of every single thing.” (72:  26-28) 

The opinion we express about these verses is for study and investigation. The key to our interpretation is the phrase: من بين يديه و من خلفه - “…before him and behind him….” The meaning could be before the appearance of the Apostle and after his appearance, and this is obvious. The evidence for this is plenty. One is seen in the Arabic idiom: بين يدي الساعة كذا و كذا’ which means “Shortly before the Hour”. The Khalifa (Caliph) (which literally means Successor) is given this title because he comes after those before him. Thus the meaning of the verses can be: Allah is the All-Knower of the Unseen and does not acquaint anyone with his mysteries except the holy Apostles whom He has chosen. He creates (before their appearance) first signs  revealed by angels who watch the progress of nations and supervise their destiny. The Unseen, delivered by angels and revealed before the appearance of the Apostle is what Allah has permitted and chosen.

Hence, we read in books concerning the biography of Prophet Mohammed’s صلى الله عليه وسلم  mother, Aamina, and her vision in which she was ordered to name her son Muhammad. The Christians and Jews knew that Prophet Mohammad صلى الله عليه وسلم was about to be born and were expecting him. It is said in the Prophet’s Hadith that Satan insinuates evil while the angel inspires. This is confirmed and known. It seems that the role of angels does not end with the death of the Apostle, but that they continue to keep watching, guarding and inspiring. These inspirations come at the right time so that the message will be delivered to the people. If one says that the message of the Apostle has been delivered and the responsibility is thus handed over, our response is: The message has been delivered, but the further significance and meanings can be discovered at any time. Thus, the message will continue to be delivered till the Day of Judgement. It is then that it will be completely delivered and thereby not only the world of reality will be unveiled, but also the world of the Unseen.

The Quran responds to the Idolaters' inquiries about the Hour (Day of Judgement):

قُلْ إِنْ أَدْرِي أَقَرِيبٌ مَّا تُوعَدُونَ أَمْ يَجْعَلُ لَهُ رَبِّي أَمَدًا

عَالِمُ الْغَيْبِ فَلَا يُظْهِرُ عَلَى غَيْبِهِ أَحَدًا

إِلَّا مَنِ ارْتَضَى مِن رَّسُولٍ فَإِنَّهُ يَسْلُكُ مِن بَيْنِ يَدَيْهِ وَمِنْ خَلْفِهِ رَصَدًا

 “Say: I know not whether the punishment which you are promised is near or whether my Lord will appoint for it a distant term. He alone knows the Unseen, nor does He make anyone be acquainted with His Unseen. Except an apostle whom he has chosen…” (Quran 72: 25-27). This means that the Day of Judgement will not come until the message is completely delivered. 

In the light of this interpretation we can summarize the import of the verses as follows:

 1.      The unveiling of the Unseen is concerned with the messages and this could happen:

          a.     Before the appearance of the Apostle. In this case the Unseen foreshadows his appearance, and this is an endorsement of the Apostle.

          b.     At the time of the appearance of the Apostle where the revelation of the Unseen is an endorsement and evidence for him.

          c.     After the going of the Apostle. Here the role of the angels continues whereby they inspire people to explore and extract the hidden treasures of the message.

 

2.       The Hour will not come until the message of the Apostle is completely delivered and the hidden meanings discovered: لِّيَعْلَمَ أَن قَدْ أَبْلَغُوا رِسَالَاتِ رَبِّهِمْ وَأَحَاطَ بِمَا لَدَيْهِمْ وَأَحْصَى كُلَّ شَيْءٍ عَدَدًا “...And He surrounds all the mysteries that are with them and counts the number  of every single thing.” ( Quran 72:28)

 What the angels inspire of Allah’s knowledge is only what Allah has permitted. What is learned is only what Allah has taught. Allah has counted everything which is a number, that is, anything whose reality is based on numbers. Therefore, understanding the numerical basis of things brings us closer to understanding their true nature and reality. This means that our understanding of Quranic numbers brings us closer to the true understanding. This includes Quranic prophecies pertaining to the future.

 

Epilogue

 At the end of the day, these are inductive observations which we hope will arouse in the reader the motivation for research. We also hope that our conviction about the existence of numbers in the Quranic structure has been confirmed. It is hoped that such conviction will yield further efforts, so that the light of truth will shine in the minds and hearts of many of those who seek the truth.

 The Noon Center is always ready to receive your observations, criticisms, corrections and advice. This task is much bigger than can be handled by one research center. The expected yield will be very great and of enormous benefit, insh’Allah.

 “Our Lord! In Thee do we trust, And to Thee do we return in repentance: To Thee is our final Goal!” (Quran 60:4)

 
 


[1] The frequency of و+ل+د+ا is 72+115+54+216=457.

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