Are there verses in the Quran that ask Muslims to kill infidels or non-Muslims ?
Surah Al Baqarah 2:191 Examined
Does the Passage call for Genocide?
By Sami Zaatari
Many times when non-Muslims argue against the Quran, claiming it preaches violence and terrorism, they go on to quote Surah Al Baqarah verse 191, the verse reads as follows:
The non-Muslim quotes this verse and argues that the verse teaches terrorism, and that the verse commands Muslims to slay the unbelievers wherever we catch them. However so does the passage actually preach terrorism? Or is that the non-Muslim is quoting this passage out of its proper context? Well the answer is that the verse is being quoted out of context, which is very sad because it is blatant mis-interpretation and blatant lying because it is not difficult to quote this passage in context, here is the context of this passage:
So here is the passage being quoted in context, and as you can see when the verse is quoted in context one will notice there is no terrorism or genocide being preached or advocated! The context is if MUSLIMS GET ATTACKED then Muslims have the right to attack back, and the context is very clear on that, the theme comes into play on verse 190, not verse 191 which non-Muslims quote alone, the non-Muslim should quote from verse 190 onwards, and once doing so one will see that this is a defensive war, not an offensive one, if people attack the Muslims then the Muslims have the right to attack back, and that is exactly what the verses are saying.
The verses even say that if the people who started the fight begin to stop and make peace than we too must also stop and make peace as well, far from terrorism.
So it is that simple, verse 191 does not advocate terrorism or genocide, it advocates self-defense as can be seen from it context starting from verse 190 which states that if Muslims are attacked then we can attack back, and the context goes on to say that if the enemies stop attacking and make peace then we too should make peace, very simply and easy!
And Allah Knows Best!
Smite at their necks
By Sami Zaatari
There are certain anti-Islamic people out there who often claim the Quran is a book of terror, that it orders the death and destruction of all none-believers, one of the most common verses they use to prove their argument is verse 4 of Surah Muhammad which is the 47th Surah in the Noble Quran. The verse reads:
The non-Muslims quote this and start claiming terrorism and murder. However so is that the case? Or is the same case as always, that the non-Muslim is simply being dis-honest with themselves, and their fellow people. Well you make that choice after the explanation is given.
Let us analyse this verse to see if it does truly preach terrorism or not. Obviously the part that non-Muslims use the most with this verse is when it reads:
Therefore, when ye meet the Unbelievers (in fight), smite at their necks;
The verse is referring to battle, and war, that in a battle, when we meet the unbelieving army that we should aim for the neck. Is that terrorism, is that barbaric? Off course not, this is very logical, and this is the harsh reality of wars and battles, people get killed, and people go into a battle and war with the intention of killing their enemy. It is like if an army gives you instructions on how to attack your enemy during combat, would that be classified as terrorism? Off course it wouldn't, so why is it classed as terrorism or barbarity when the Quran gives Muslims instructions on how they should fight during a battle with an enemy?
So therefore there is nothing wrong with this part of the verse, it does not preach terrorism, or barbarity, not even close!
The second part of the verse that the non-Muslim has a problem with is when it reads:
bind a bond firmly (on them): thereafter (is the time for) either generosity or ransom
What exactly is wrong with this command? Logically after a battle there is a winner and a loser, and obviously after a battle several enemy combatants will come into the hands of the opposition, and logically they will be taken in as prisoners and held for ransom. Is this cruel? Is this barbarity? Not even close, this is the simply the harsh reality of war, in war and battle you risk death, and you risk capture, this is the reality of such events. Secondly, notice that the verse even says the prisoners can be released out of generosity! Basically a ransom is not the only means of freedom, a Muslim has two options, either let the person go out of your own generosity, or if you want, you can get a ransom out of the prisoner.
So in conclusion this verse preaches no terrorism, it preaches no barbarity, all it gives are commands for the Muslims on how they should fight their enemy during battle, and what they should do with any prisoners they have.
And Allah Knows Best!
By Sami Zaatari
One often quoted verse used against Muslims is that of Surah 8, ayat 12. The verse reads as:
When thy Lord inspired the angels, (saying): I am with you. So make those who
believe stand firm. I will throw fear into the hearts of those who
disbelieve. Then smite the necks and smite of them each finger.
SHAKIR: When your Lord revealed to the angels: I am with you, therefore make firm those who believe. I will cast terror into the hearts of those who disbelieve. Therefore strike off their heads and strike off every fingertip of them.
Anti-Islamics like to always bring this up and claim that this verse proves that Islam promotes terrorism and that the Quran orders Muslims to go and chop people's heads off along with their finger tips.
The fact that anti-Islamics make such claims shows their lack of knowledge on Islam, and that they should really study Islam with an open heart rather than visit anti-Islamic sites, and read anti-Islamic books and believe everything they tell you.
Even that goon Ali Sina uses this same argument over and over again showing how little he knows about Islam.
So to make things easier for everybody, I shall give the explanation of this verse, in doing so it shall help making dialog between Muslims and anti-Islamics much easier, since there can't be any dialog when one party's information is incorrect and distorted.
To begin, this verse is referring to a SPECIFIC BATTLE, this verse is not an order on Muslims, and this verse is talking about a battle that took place. The battle it is referring to is the battle of Badr.
Al-Maududi's introduction to this Surah writes:
The Surah takes its name AL-ANFAL (The Bounties) from the first verse.
The Period of Revelation
It was revealed in 2 A. H. after the
Battle of Badr, the first battle between Islam and kufr. As it contains a
detailed and comprehensive review of the
Let us now also post the tafsir of Ibn Kathir regarding this verse:
Allah commands the Angels to fight and support the Believers
Allah said next,
((Remember) when your Lord revealed to the angels, "Verily, I am with you, so keep firm those who have believed.'')
This is a hidden favor that Allah has made known to the believers, so that they thank Him and are grateful to Him for it. Allah, glorified, exalted, blessed and praised be He, has revealed to the angels -- whom He sent to support His Prophet, religion and believing group -- to make the believers firmer. Allah's statement,
(I will cast terror into the hearts of those who have disbelieved.) means, `you -- angels -- support the believers, strengthen their (battle) front against their enemies, thus, implementing My command to you. I will cast fear, disgrace and humiliation over those who defied My command and denied My Messenger, f
(so strike them over the necks, and smite over all their fingers and toes.) strike them on their foreheads to tear them apart and over the necks to cut them off, and cut off their limbs, hands and feet. It was said that,
(over the necks) refers to striking the forehead, or the neck, according to Ad-Dahhak and `Atiyyah Al-`Awfi. In support of the latter, Allah commanded the believers,
(So, when you meet (in fight Jihad in Allah's cause) those who disbelieve, smite (their) necks till when you have killed and wounded many of them, then bind a bond firmly (on them, take them as captives).) [47:4]
Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said, "In the aftermath of Badr, the people used to recognize whomever the angels killed from those whom they killed, by the wounds over their necks, fingers and toes, because those parts had a mark as if they were branded by fire.'' Allah said,
(and smite over all their fingers and toes.)
Ibn Jarir commented that this Ayah commands, "O believers! Strike every limb and finger on the hands and feet of your (disbelieving) enemies.'' Al-`Awfi reported, that Ibn `Abbas said about the battle of Badr that Abu Jahl said, "Do not kill them (the Muslims), but capture them so that you make known to them what they did, their ridiculing your religion and shunning Al-Lat and Al-`Uzza (two idols).'' Allah than sent down to the angels,
(Verily, I am with you, so keep firm those who have believed. I will cast terror into the hearts of those who have disbelieved, so strike them over the necks, and smite over all their fingers and toes.)
In that battle, Abu Jahl (may Allah curse him) was killed along with sixty-nine men. `Uqbah bin Abu Mua`it was captured and then killed, thus bring the death toll of the pagans to seventy,
(This is because they defied and disobeyed Allah and His Messenger.) joining the camp that defied Allah and His Messenger not including themselves in the camp of Allah's Law and faith in Him. Allah said,
(And whoever defies and disobeys Allah and His Messenger, then verily, Allah is severe in punishment.) for He will crush whoever defies and disobeys Him. Nothing ever escapes Allah's grasp nor can anything ever stand against His anger. Blessed and exalted He is, there is no true deity or Lord except Him.
(This is (the torment), so taste it; and surely, for the disbelievers is the torment of the Fire.)
This Ayah addresses the disbeliever, saying, taste this torment and punishment in this life and know that the torment of the Fire in the Hereafter is for the disbelievers.
So as you can see, these events were taking place during a battle. Now off course during a battle in those days you would aim for the neck to get an immediate blow, and off course you would also aim for their fingers, once taking out their fingers the enemy would not be able to carry his sword hence you neutralize the enemy.
So there is nothing barbaric or mean about these verses, it is simply referring to a battle, and nothing barbaric was done in the battle neither these were how battles were fought back then.
And Allah Knows Best
Surah 9:29 Discussed
Fight those who believe not in Allah nor the Last Day
By Sami Zaatari
Opponents of Islam claim that Islam is not a religion of peace, that it is in fact a religion of violence, terrorism, and a faith that advocates wars against those who do not believe in this religion. One of the most common text they bring up to support their claim is that of Surah 9:29 (Surah Taubah). They claim this verse advocates violence, and war, against all those who do not believe in Islam, hence they conclude that Islam is an intolerant religion. Before refuting their claims, and their gross ignorance, let us first quote this passage:
Fight those who believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden
which hath been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, nor acknowledge the
religion of Truth, (even if they are) of the People of the Book, until they pay
the Jizya with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.
Fight against such of those who have been given the Scripture as believe not in
Allah nor the Last Day, and forbid not that which Allah hath forbidden by His
messenger, and follow not the Religion of Truth, until they pay the tribute
readily, being brought low.
SHAKIR: Fight those who do not believe in Allah, nor in the latter day, nor do they prohibit what Allah and His Messenger have prohibited, nor follow the religion of truth, out of those who have been given the Book, until they pay the tax in acknowledgment of superiority and they are in a state of subjection.
To begin with, let us expose the Christian double standard, why do they firstly assume that fight has to completely mean physical only? Fighting those who do not believe in Islam can done in many other forms other than a physical fight or conflict, fighting someone can be done with the tongue, you refute and crush the persons lies, and you preach the truth to them until they repent of their ways and come to the truth. There is not a single objection any Christian or other can bring against this point, because they have deceptively interpreted this verse to mean physical altercation only, in fact what will Christians say to this verse from their Bible:
Mat 10:34 Think not that I am come to send peace on earth: I came not to send peace, but a sword
Christians will interpret this verse saying that sword doesn't actually mean a physical sword, rather it is metaphorical language referring to the tongue, that by the tongue Christians shall spread the truth and crush the lies that have been propagated by satan. Therefore I must ask why don't Christians leave this interpretation open to the Quran as well? Why do they immediately assume that Surah 9:29 must ONLY refer to physical altercation? If a Christian objects to my claim that Surah 9:29 can also mean fighting unbelievers by the tongue, then it also throws out their own interpretation of Matthew 10:34 which means they no longer have any argument! So it is up to the Christian, if they want to argue honestly, or if they want to argue deceptively using double standards in interpretation.
Now let us examine the historical context of this verse, since Christians never want to take anything into context, they just quote and scream victory. We shall quote Maududi's excellent commentary of the verse's background and context:
So as you can see, it was a direct act of war by the neighbouring Christians that resulted with this verse, they killed innocent Muslim messengers who were simply passing a letter from the prophet Muhammad to them, and back then it was an international ruling and law that simple messengers carrying messages to other rulers would not be targeted or killed.
Secondly, during the war, Caesar killed an Arab commander for the Roman empire Favrah for converting to Islam, he was given an ultimatum to either leave Islam or die, he choose Islam and hence was martyred, this act shows the Romans evil hatred towards the Muslim nation that they would kill you for being Muslim!
So what do our Christian friends expect? Do they expect the Muslims to simply sit down and let this happen? God revealed this verse so that the Muslims could defend themselves against the onslaught of one of the worlds greatest empire at the time which were the Romans, Allah gave the Muslims permission to attack them, as they say, the best defence is an offence. The Muslims were forced to act, the Muslims did not start the war, the Christians did, and they lost, the Muslims managed to take control of several areas which were held by the Romans, and these new captured lands were now part of the Islamic state and the inhabitants would have to pay the jizyah. If Christians have a problem with this, then they should have never started the war with the Muslims, as they say, don't start something you can't finish, Muslims are not mere European Pagans who Christians could pick on, the Muslims had God on their side so the Christians picked on the wrong people to make war with.
Saifur Rahman al-Mubarakpuri in his work of Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum (THE SEALED NECTAR) Memoirs of the Noble Prophet [pbuh] writes:
The invasion and the conquest of Makkah was considered a decisive one between the truth and the error. As a result of which, the Arabs had no more doubt in Muhammad's mission. Thus we see that things went contrary to the pagans' expectations. People started to embrace Islam, the religion of All⨬ in great numbers. This is manifested clearly in the chapter ? The delegations, of this book. It can also be deduced out of the enormous number of people who shared in the Hajjatul-Wad⦣145; (Farewell Pilgrimage). All domestic troubles came to an end. Muslims, eventually felt at ease and started setting up the teachings of All⨦#146;s Laws and intensifying the Call to Islam.
The underlying Reasons
The Byzantine power, which was considered the greatest military force on earth at that time, showed an unjustifiable opposition towards Muslims. As we have already mentioned, their opposition started at killing the ambassador of the Messenger of All⨠[pbuh], Al-Harith bin ?Umair Al-Azdi, by Sharhabeel bin ?Amr Al-Ghassani. The ambassador was then carrying a message from the Prophet [pbuh] to the ruler of Busra. We have also stated that the Prophet consequently dispatched a brigade under the command of Zaid bin Haritha, who had a fierce fight against the Byzantines at Mu'tah. Although Muslim forces could not have revenge on those haughty overproud tyrants, the confrontation itself had a great impression on the Arabs, all over Arabia.
Caesar ? who could neither ignore the great benefit that Mu'tah Battle had brought to Muslims, nor could he disregard the Arab tribes' expectations of independence, and their hopes of getting free from his influence and reign, nor he could ignore their alliance to the Muslims ? realizing all that, Caesar was aware of the progressive danger threatening his borders, especially Ash-Sham-fronts which were neighbouring Arab lands. So he concluded that demolition of the Muslims power had grown an urgent necessity. This decision of his should, in his opinion, be achieved before the Muslims become too powerful to conquer, and raise troubles and unrest in the adjacent Arab territories.
To meet these exigencies, Caesar mustered a huge army of the Byzantines and pro-Roman Ghassanide tribes to launch a decisive bloody battle against the Muslims.
General News about the Byzantines and Ghassanide Preparations for War
No sooner news about the Byzantine's preparations for a decisive invasion against Muslims reached Madinah than fear spread among them. They started to envisage the Byzantine invasion in the least sound they could hear. This could be clearly worked out of what had happened to ?Umar bin Al-Khattab one day.
The Prophet [pbuh] had taken an oath to stay off his wives for a month in the ninth year of Al-Hijra. Therefore, he deserted them and kept off in a private place. At the beginning, the Companions of the Messenger of All⨠were puzzled and could not work out the reason for such behaviour. They thought the Prophet [pbuh] had divorced them and that was why he was grieved, disturbed and upset. In ?Umar's version of the very story he says: "I used to have a Helper friend who often informed me about what happened if I weren't present, and in return I always informed him of what had taken place during his absence. They both lived in the high part of Madinah. Both of them used to call at the Prophet alternatively during that time of suspense. Then one day I heard my friend, knock at the door saying: "Open up! Open up!" I asked wondering, "What's the matter? Has the Ghassanide come?" "No it is more serious than that. The Messenger of All⨠[pbuh] has deserted his wives." [Sahih Al-Bukhari 2/730]
In another version, ?Umar said, "We talked about Ghassanide preparations to invade us. When it was his turn to convey the news to me, he went down and returned in the evening. He knocked at the door violently and said ?Is he sleeping?' I was terrified but I went out to meet him. ?Something serious had taken place.' He said. ?Has the Ghassaindes arrived?' Said I. ?No,' he said, ?it is greater and more serious. The Messenger of All⨍ [pbuh] has divorced his wives.'" [Sahih Al-Bukhari 1/334]
This state of too much alertness manifests clearly the seriousness of the situation that Muslims began to experience. The seriousness of the situation was confirmed to a large degree by the hypocrites behaviour, when news about the Byzantines' preparations reached Madinah. The fact that the Messenger of All⨍ [pbuh] won all the battles he fought, and that no power on earth could make him terrified, and that he had always proved to be able to overcome all the obstacles that stood in his way - did not prevent the hypocrites, who concealed evil in their hearts, from expecting an affliction to fall upon the Muslims and Islam.
They used to harbour evil and ill-intentions against the whole process of Islam and the Muslims. On grounds of illusory hopes of destroying this great religious edifice, they erected a hotbed of conspiracy and intrigue in the form of a mosque ? Masjid-e-Darar (the mosque of harm). They approached the Prophet [pbuh] with the request that he should come and consecrate the place by praying in it himself. As he was at the moment about to start for Tabuk, he deferred compliance with their request till his return. Meanwhile he came to know through Divine Revelation that it was not a Mosque for devotion and prayer but a meeting place for the anti-Islamic elements. On his return, therefore, the Prophet [pbuh] sent a party to demolish the new structure.
Particular News about the Byzantine and Ghassanide Preparations for War
A magnified image of the prominent danger threatening the Muslims life was carried to them by the Nabateans who brought oil from Ash-Sham to Madinah. They carried news about Heraclius' preparations and equipment of an enormous army counting over forty thousand fighters besides Lukham, Judham and other tribes allied to the Byzantines. They said that its vanguard had already reached Al-Balq⦣146;. Thus was the grave situation standing in ambush for the Muslims. The general situation was aggravated seriously by other adverse factors of too much hot weather, drought and the rough and rugged distance they had to cover in case they decided to encounter the imminent danger.
The Messenger of All⨦#146;s [pbuh] concept and estimation of the situation and its development was more precise and accurate than all others. He thought that if he tarried or dealt passively with the situation in such a way that might enable the Byzantines to paddle through the Islamic controlled provinces or to go as far as Madinah, this would ? amid these circumstances ? leave the most awful impression on Islam as well as on the Muslims' military credibility.
The pre-Islamic beliefs and traditions (Al-Jahiliyah) which were at that time dying because of the strong decisive blow that they had already had at Hunain, could have had a way to come back to life once again in such an environment. The hypocrites who were conspiring against the Muslims so that they might stab them in the back whereas Byzantines would attack them from the front. If such a thing came to light and they succeeded in their evil attempts, the Prophet and his Companions' efforts to spread Islam would collapse and their profits which were the consequences of successive and constant fights and invasions would be invalidated. The Messenger of All⨠[pbuh] realised all that very well. So ? in spite of the hardships and drought that Muslims were suffering from ? the Prophet [pbuh] was determined that the Muslims should invade the Byzantines and fight a decisive battle at their own borders. He was determined not to tarry at all in order to thwart any Roman attempt to approach the land of Islam.
When the Messenger of All⨠[pbuh] had made up his mind and took his final decision, he ordered his Companions to get ready for war and sent for the Makkans and the other Arab tribes asking for their assistance.
Contrary to his habit of concealing his real intention of the invasion by means of declaring a false one, he announced openly his intention of meeting the Byzantines and fighting them. He cleared the situation to his people so that they would get ready, and urged them to fight in the way of All⨮ On this occasion a part of Surat Bara'a (Chapter 9 ? The Repentance) was sent down by All⨬ urging them to steadfastness and stamina.
On the other hand, the Messenger of All⨠[pbuh] cherished them to pay charities and to spend the best of their fortunes in the way of All⨮
No sooner had the Muslims heard the voice of the Messenger of All⨠[pbuh] calling them to fight the Byzantines than they rushed to comply with his orders. With great speed they started getting ready for war. Tribes and phratries from here and there began pouring in Madinah. Almost all the Muslims responded positively. Only those who had weakness at their hearts favoured to stay behind. They were only three people. Even the needy and the poor who could not afford a ride came to the Messenger of All⨠[pbuh] asking for one so that they would be able to share in the fight against the Byzantines. But when he said:
"...?I can find no mounts for you' they turned back while their eyes overflowing with tears of grief that they could not find anything to spend (for Jihad)." [Al-Qur'an 9:92]
The Muslims raced to spend out money and to pay charities to provide this invasion. ?Uthman, for instance, who had already rigged two hundred, saddled camels to travel to Ash-Sham, presented them all with two hundred ounces (of gold) as charity. He also fetched a thousand dinars and cast them all into the lap of the Messenger of All⨠[pbuh], who turned them over and said: "From this day on nothing will harm ?Uthman regardless of what he does." [Jami' At-Tirmidhi 2/211 (The virtues of 'Uthman)] Again and again ?Uthman gave till his charity toped to nine hundred camels and a hundred horses, besides the money he paid.
Abdur Rahman bin ?Awf, on his side, paid two hundred silver ounces, whereas Abu Bakr paid the whole money he had and left nothing but All⨠and His Messenger as a fortune for his family. ?Umar paid half his fortune. Al-?Abbas gifted a lot of money. Talhah, Sa?d bin ?Ubadah and Muhammad bin Maslamah, gave money for the welfare of the invasion. ?Asim bin ?Adi, on his turn, offered ninety camel-burdens of dates. People raced to pay little and much charities alike. One of them gave the only half bushel (or the only bushel) he owned. Women shared in this competition by giving the things they owned; such as musk, armlets, anklets, ear-rings and rings. No one abstained from spending out money, or was too mean to grant money or anything except the hypocrites:
"Those who defame such of the believers who give charity (in All⨦#146;s cause) voluntarily, and those who could not find to give charity (in All⨦#146;s cause) except what is available to them, so they mock at them (believers)." [Al-Qur'an 9:79]
The Muslim Army is leaving for Tabuk
Upon accomplishing the equipment of the army, the Messenger of All⨠[pbuh] ordained that Muhammad bin Maslamah Al-Ansari should be appointed over Madinah ? in another version Siba? bin ?Arftah. To ?Ali bin Abu Talib he entrusted his family's safety and affairs and ordered him to stay with them. This move made the hypocrites undervalue ?Ali, so he followed the Messenger of All⨠[pbuh] and caught up with him. But the Prophet made ?Ali turn back to Madinah after saying: "Would it not suffice you to be my successor in the way that Aaron (Harun) was to Moses'?" Then he proceeded saying: "But no Prophet succeeds me."
On Thursday, the Messenger of All⨠[pbuh] marched northwards to Tabuk. The army that numbered thirty thousand fighters was a great one, when compared with the previous armies of Islam. Muslims had never marched with such a great number before.
Despite all the gifts of wealth and mounts the army was not perfectly equipped. The shortage of provisions and mounts was so serious that eighteen men mounted one camel alternatively. As for provisions, members of the army at times had to eat the leaves of trees till their lips got swollen. Some others had to slaughter camels ? though they were so dear ? so that they could drink the water of their stomach; that is why that army was called "The army of distress".
On their way to Tabuk, the army of Islam passed by Al-Hijr ? which was the native land of Thamud who cut out (huge) rocks in the valley; that is "Al-Qura Valley" of today. They watered from its well but later the Messenger of All⨠[pbuh] told them not to drink of that water, nor perform the ablution with it. The dough they made, he asked them to feed their camels with. He forbade them to eat anything whatsoever of it. As an alternative he told them to water from that well which Prophet Salih's she-camel used to water from.
On the authority of Ibn ?Umar: "Upon passing by Al-Hijr the Prophet [pbuh] said:
"Do not enter the houses of those who erred themselves lest what had happened to them would afflict you, but if you had to do such a thing let it be associated with weeping."
Then he raised his head up and accelerated his strides till he passed the valley out." [Sahih Al-Bukhari 2/637]
Shortage of water and the army's need to it made them complain to the Messenger of All⨠[pbuh] about that. So he supplicated All⨬ who sent a rainful cloud. It rained and so all people drank and supplied themselves with their need of water.
When they drew near Tabuk, the Prophet said: "If All⨠will, tomorrow you will arrive at Tabuk spring. You will not get there before daytime. So whoever reaches it should not touch its water; but wait till I come." Mu?adh said: "When we reached the spring it used to gush forth some water. We found that two men had already preceded us to it. The Messenger of All⨍ [pbuh] asked them: ?Have you touched its water?' They replied: ?Yes'. He said what All⨠inspired him to say, then he scooped up little water of that spring, thin stream which gathered together, he washed his face and hand with it and poured it back into it; consequently plenty of water spouted out of it so people watered. ?Mu?adh', said the Messenger of All⨬ ?if you were doomed to live long life you will see in here fields full of vegetation.'" [Sahih Muslim 2/246]
On the way to Tabuk, or as soon as they reached Tabuk, the Messenger of All⨠[pbuh] said: ?Severe wind will blow tonight, so none of you should stand up. Whoever has a camel should tie it up.' Later on when the strong wind blew, one of the men stood up and the wind carried him away to Tai' Mountain. [ibid. Sahih Muslim 2/246]
All the way long the Messenger of All⨠[pbuh] was intent on the performance of the combined prayer of noon and the afternoon; and so did he with sunset and evening prayers. His prayers for both were either pre-time or post-time prayers.
The Army of Islam at Tabuk
Arriving at Tabuk and camping there, the Muslim army was ready to face the enemy. There, the Messenger of All⨠[pbuh] delivered an eloquent speech that included the most inclusive words. In that speech he urged the Muslims to seek the welfare of this world and the world to come. He warned and cherished them and gave them good tidings. By doing that he cherished those who were broken in spirits, and blocked up the gap of shortage and mess they were suffering from due to lack of supplies, food and other substances.
Upon learning of the Muslims' march, the Byzantines and their allies were so terrified that none of them dared set out to fight. On the contrary they scattered inside their territory. It brought, in itself, a good credit to the Muslim forces. That had gained military reputation in the mid and remote lands of Arabian Peninsula. The great and serious political profits that the Muslim forces had obtained, were far better than the ones they could have acquired if the two armies had been engaged in military confrontation.
The Head of Ailah, Yahna bin Rawbah came to the Messenger of All⨠[pbuh], made peace with him and paid him the tribute (Al-Jizya). Both of Jarba' and Adhruh peoples paid him tribute, as well. So the Messenger of All⨠[pbuh] gave each a guarantee letter, similar to Yahna's, in which he says:
"In the Name of All⨬ the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.
This is a guarantee of protection from All⨠and Muhammad the Prophet, the Messenger of All⨬ to Yahna bin Rawbah and the people of Ailah; their ships, their caravans on land and sea shall have the custody of All⨠and the Prophet Muhammad, he and whosoever are with him of Ash-Sham people and those of the sea. Whosoever contravenes this treaty, his wealth shall not save him; it shall be the fair prize of him that takes it. Now it should not be lawful to hinder the men from any springs which they have been in the habit of frequenting, nor from any journeys they desire to make, whether by sea or by land."
The Messenger of All⨠[pbuh] dispatched Khalid bin Al-Waleed at the head of four hundred and fifty horsemen to ?Ukaidir Dumat Al-Jandal and said to him: "You will see him hunting oryxes." So when Khalid drew near his castle and was as far as an eye-sight range, he saw the oryxes coming out rubbing their horns against the castle gate. As it was a moony night Khalid could see Ukaidir come out to hunt them, so he captured him ? though he was surrounded by his men ? and brought him back to the Messenger of All⨠[pbuh], who spared his life and made peace with him for the payment of two thousand camels, eight hundred heads of cattle, four hundred armours and four hundred lances. He obliged him to recognize the duty of paying tribute and charged him with collecting it from Dumat, Tabuk, Ailah and Taima'.
The tribes, who used to ally the Byzantines, became quite certain that their dependence oinn their former masters came to an end. Therefore they turned into being pro-Muslims. The Islamic state had therefore enlarged its borders to an extent that it, touched the Byzantines' and their agents' borders. So we see that the Byzantine agents role was over.
Returning to Madinah
The Muslim army returned from Tabuk victoriously, undeceived or wronged. That was because All⨠had sufficed them the evils of fight.
On the way back and at a mountain road, twelve hypocrites sought the Prophet's life and that was while he was passing along that mountain road with only Ammar holding the rein of his she-camel and Hudhaifa bin Al-Yaman driving it, at the time that people had already gone down into the bottom of the valley.
The hypocrites seized that opportunity to seek the Prophet's life. As the Messenger of All⨠[pbuh] and his two companions were moving along, they heard thrusts of people coming towards him from behind with their faces veiled. Hudhaifa, who was sent by the Prophet to see what was going on, saw them and stroke their mounts' faces with a crook in his hand and All⨠cast fear into their hearts. They fled away and overtook their people.
However, Hudhaifa named them to the Messenger of All⨠[pbuh] and informed him of their intentions. So that was why Hudhaifa was called the "confidant" of the Messenger of All⨠[pbuh]. About this event All⨬ the Exalted says:
"And they resolved that (plot to murder Prophet Muhammad [pbuh]) which they were unable to carry out." [Al-Qur'an 9:74]
When his headquarters, Madinah, began to loom at the horizon, the Prophet [pbuh] said: "This is a cheerful sight. This is Uhud, which is a mountain, we like it and it likes us." When the Madinese learnt of their arrival they set out to meet the army. Women, youths, youngsters and small children went out of town to celebrate their home-return wholeheartedly singing:
moon shone down upon us, through the traits of Al-Wada? Mountain.
The Messenger of All⨠[pbuh] 's march to Tabuk was in Rajab and his return in Ramadan. So we see that this Ghazwah took fifty days, twenty days of which were spent in Tabuk and the others on the way to and fro. Tabuk Invasion was the last one made by the Prophet [pbuh].
The Invasion of Tabuk and its Far-Reaching Ramifications
The effect of this invasion is great as regards extending and confirming the Muslims' influence and domination on the Arabian Peninsula. It was quite obvious to everybody that no power but Islam's would live long among the Arabs. The remainders of Jahiliyin and hypocrites ? who used to conspire steadily against the Muslims and who perpetually relied on Byzantine power when they were in need of support or help ? these people lost their expectations and desires of ever reclaiming their ex-influence. Realizing that there was no way out and that they were to submit to the fait accompli, they gave up their attempts.
From that time on, hypocrites were no longer treated leniently or even gently by the Muslims. All⨠not only bade Muslims to treat them severely but He also forbade them to take their gift charities or perform prayer on their dead, or ask All⨦#146;s forgiveness for them or even visit their tombs. All⨠bade the Muslims to demolish the mosque, which they verily appointed and used as a hiding place where they might practise their plots, conspiracy and deceit. Some Qur'⮩c verses were sent down disclosing them publicly and utterly so that everybody in Madinah got to know their reality.
The great impact that this invasion produced could be perceived in of the great number of delegations who came successively to meet the Messenger of All⨠[pbuh]. Naturally, deputations used to come to meet him at the end of an invasion particularly after Makkah Conquest [Ibn Hisham 2/515-537; Za'd Al-Ma'ad 3/2-13; Sahih Al-Bukhari 2/633,635-637, 1/252, 414; Fath Al-Bari 8/110-126; Mukhtasar Seerat Ar-Rasool p.391-407] but they were not as many as these nor were they as frequent as they were then in the wake of Tabuk event. It was certainly the greatest.
The Qur'⮩c Verses Relating to this Invasion
Many a verse of Bara'a (Tauba) Chapter dealing with the event of Tabuk were revealed. Some verses were revealed before the march, while others after setting out for Tabuk, i.e. in the context of the battle. Some other verses were also revealed on the Prophet's arrival in Madinah. All of which covered the incidents that featured this invasion: the immanent circumstances of the battle, exposure of the hypocrites, the prerogatives and special rank earmarked for the strivers in the cause of All⨬ acceptance of the repentance of the truthful believers who slackened and those who hung back, etc.
This all refutes the assertions made by Christians and anti-Islamics, the Muslims were forced to act, and they did, Christians only attack this verse because they're angry that they lost the wars. And it also seems that Christians think its okay for their people to kill and having the intention to destroy the Islamic nation, but when Muslims react we become criminals and an intolerant faith! How convenient!
And indeed Allah Knows best!