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UrMonotheismus

By Mohammad Fahad Taimur Butt

 

Disclaimer: The author of this article, Mr. Mohammad Fahad Taimur Butt, is not associated with Discovering Islam.

 

Introduction

The name came from smashing the words Ur and monotheism together. Ur was the city in Mesopotamia that Ibraheem (Abraham) (AS) used to live in and monotheism is the worship of one God. UrMonotheismus is the anthropological theory that states that all religions devolved from monotheism; man was originally monotheistic, then degenerated into pantheism (everything is divine) or henotheism (one supreme deity and lesser deities) or polytheism (multiple deities), totemism (idol worship), and then animism (spirits). The term was first coined by Andrew Lang in 1898 who opposed the idea of "revolutionary monotheism".

UrMonotheism is the same as the Islamic point of view, as Ibn 'Abbas relates, "Indeed these five names of righteous men from the people of Noah. When they died Shaytan (Satan) whispered to their people to make statues of them and to place these statues in their places of gathering as a reminder of them, so they did this. However, none from amongst them worshipped these statues, until when they died and the purpose of the statues was forgotten. Then (the next generation) began to worship them." (Bukhari 8/534).

Therefore, of course I will be biased. However, I have evidence outside of Islam to support this anthropological theory. Should this theory be true, it would help solve the question of the fate of the unlearned.

It goes like this, “How are those who don’t know the religion supposed to get to paradise,” or “what was God’s way before [insert religion here]”. Ask this question to a Christian, he may not have an answer (because it's impossible to believe in the Trinity without knowing about Jesus, so what of the fate of Native Americans?) or he might say "Jesus was a Jew". Ask this to a Jew, he would say, "We are the chosen people”. Ask this to a Buddhist/Hindu/East Asian, they might remain silent. Also, don't ask this to an Atheist.

 

Well, what did the five greatest prophets in Islam believe in prior to their revelation, as they would only receive revelation if the correct religion is not found in their society? It should make sense that if they were to die before receiving revelation, that they would still have exemplary character and piety:

1.      Noah (AS) was a monotheist.

2.      Musa (AS) was a monotheist (his mother was an Israeli who followed the teachings of Abraham and also grew up under the care of Asiya)

3.      Ibrahim (AS) was a hanif (i.e. a monotheist) in the presence of polytheism.

4.      Isa (AS) was a Jew-monotheist.

5.      Mohammad (SAW) was a hanif in the presence of polytheism.

 

These religions all follow the principle of Tawheed however are not formally Muslims! Both the hanif faith and Judaism have uncompromising monotheism whereas Trinitarian Christianity does not. You might contest that these prophets were the best of men, so how is the layman supposed to get to paradise? The Quran and Sunnah has a direct answer to this.

 

In Sura Yunus, verse 47, Allah says:

·         And (remember) when your Lord brought forth from the Children of Adam, from their reins, their seed, and made them testify of themselves, (saying): And for every nation there is a messenger. And when their messenger cometh (on the Day of Judgment) it will be judged between them fairly, and they will not be wronged.

 

Also in Sura Nahl, verse 36, Allah says:

·         And (remember) when your Lord brought forth from the Children of Adam, from their reins, their seed, and made them testify of themselves, (saying): And verily We have raised in every nation a messenger, (proclaiming): Serve Allah and shun false gods. Then some of them (there were) whom Allah guided, and some of them (there were) upon whom error had just hold. Do but travel in the land and see the nature of the consequence for the deniers! 

 

Furthermore in Sura Ghafir, verse 78, Allah says:

·         And (remember) when your Lord brought forth from the Children of Adam, from their reins, their seed, and made them testify of themselves, (saying): Verily We sent messengers before thee, among them those of whom We have told thee, and some of whom We have not told thee; and it was not given to any messenger that he should bring a portent save by Allah's leave, but when Allah's commandment cometh (the cause) is judged aright, and the followers of vanity will then be lost.

 

To every nation was supposedly sent a messenger to inform them of the nature of their Creator. Furthermore, the Quran and the Hadith tell us that humans were born believing in God (this is supposed to make the messenger's job a bit less difficult). Therefore a society could be monotheistic because of a messenger or because monotheism is natural.

 

For example, in Sura Al-A'raf, verse 172, Allah says:

·         And (remember) when your Lord brought forth from the Children of Adam, from their reins, their seed, and made them testify of themselves, (saying): I not your Lord? They said: Yea, verily. We testify. (That was) lest ye should say at the Day of Resurrection: Lo! of this we were unaware.

 

It is recorded in the two Sahih Books from Abu Hurayrah who said that the Messenger of Allah said:

·         And (remember) when your Lord brought forth from the Children of Adam, from their reins, their seed, and made them testify of themselves, (saying): Every child is born upon the Fitrah, it is only his parents who turn him into a Jew, a Christian or a Zoroastrian. Just as animals are born having full bodies, do you see any of them having a cutoff nose at birth?

 

Muslim recorded that `Iyad bin `Himar said that the Messenger of Allah said:

·         And (remember) when your Lord brought forth from the Children of Adam, from their reins, their seed, and made them testify of themselves, (saying): And (remember) when your Lord brought forth from the Children of Adam, from their reins, their seed, and made them testify of themselves, (saying): Allah said, 'I created My servants Hunafa' (monotheists), but the devils came to them and deviated them from their religion, prohibiting what I allowed'.

 

  

The Challenge

In summary, the Muslims' claims are two and the goal of this investigation/presentation is to support the following two claims in a secular fashion:

1.      There were messengers who proselytized people to Islam before Mohammad (SAW) to other nations

a.       Evidence: There were monotheistic religions in societies that were not influenced by Abrahamic religions.

b.      Evidence: Not only did they practice monotheism, but other nations also independently practiced obscure Islamic traditions.

2.      Man is born on the fitrah and are therefore naturally monotheistic

a.       Evidence: Expert opinions say so

 I will use these claims to support the argument from consistent revelation. Argument from inconsistent revelations asserts that it is unlikely that God exists because many faithful adherents claim to possess the truth and exclude others from it. So my argument from consistent revelations asserts such similar beliefs that developed independently must have come from the same source, God- this is essentially Urmonotheismus.

Now we will examine the aqeedah (belief) of various tribes around the world that are not influenced by Abrahamic monotheism. The following supports claim 1.

 

Gikuyu as well as other African tribes

 

According to John Mbiti, the Gĩkũyũ people of modern Kenya believed that:

"Ngai or mwene-nyaga is the Supreme Creator and giver of all things. He created the first Gĩkũyũ communities, and provided them with all the resources necessary for life: land, rain, plants, and animals. Ngai cannot be seen but is manifested in the sun, moon, stars, comets and meteors, thunder and lightning, rain, rainbows, and in the great fig trees (Mugumo)."

"The Gĩkũyũ were – and still are – monotheists believing in an omnipotent God whom they refer to as Ngai. All of the Gĩkũyũ, Embu, and Kamba use this name. Ngai was also known as Mũrungu by the Meru and Embu tribes, or Mũlungu (a variant of a word meaning God which is found as far south as the Zambezi of Zambia)."

It’s important to note that not only the Gikuyu tribe were monotheistic, but also the Embu, and Kamba tribes as well!

 

The Dinka

 

The Dinka people of modern South Sudan believed in 'nhialic aciek' and 'nhialic wa' which translated to God the creator and God the Father. In it, the author comments on how the Western perception of the word God ought to not be used in this context because the Dinkas' God was not the Christian God.

Lienhardt writes in his study of the Dinka religion in his book Divinity and Experience on pages 29-30:

"Nhialic is figured sometimes as a Being, a personal Supreme Being even and sometimes as a kind of being and activity which sums up the activities of a multiplicity of beings, while the word 'God' has no such extended meaning in our common speech. So the word Divinity, thus written with the capital letter and without the definite or indefinite article, is here used to translate nhialic."

It's worth mentioning that the literal translation of Allah in English is "The Deity/Divinity".

 

 

Maw-Maw and Neyam-Neyam

The Maw-Maw and Neyam-Neyam peoples of modern sub-Saharan Africa believe in monotheism. In the words of Fethullah Gulen (the same guy tied with July 15, 2016 Turkish Coup):

"The observations of Professor Mahmoud Mustafa on two primitive African tribes confirm what has been said above. He notes that the Maw-Maw believe in God and call him Mucay. This God is One, He acts alone, He does not generate and is not begotten, and He has no partner. It is not possible to see Him or to feel Him, but only to know Him through His works. He dwells in the heavens, from whence He confers His commands to all. That is why the Maw-Maw raise their hands when they pray. Another tribe, the Neyam-Neyam, expresses similar ideas: the belief in One God who decrees and confers His orders to all, and what He says is absolute; Everything in the forest moves by His will, and punishes those who deserve it."

Now look at Sura Ikhlas:

Say: He is Allah, the One and Only;
Allah, the Eternal, Absolute;
He begetteth not, nor is He begotten;
And there is none like unto Him.

 

 

                                                          The Chinese during the Shang Dynasty

Emperor Cheng Tang

The Shang Dynasty of Ancient China (1600-1046 BCE) believed that deceased ancestors could talk to smaller gods and influence what happens to the living family. They, by definition were not monotheistic; rather they were henotheistic. They used to also worship smaller deities in addition to one powerful God. According to US History:

"In addition, the god worshipped by everyone during the Shang dynasty was Shang Ti, the "lord on high." Shang Ti was believed to be the link between people and heavenly beings. The souls of ancestors, it was thought, visited with Shang Ti and received their instructions from him. It was therefore very important to make sure that Shang Ti was happy."

Over time there was a shift from broken theism to pantheism. After the Shang dynasty, came the Zhou dynasty (1046-256 BCE). Basically, they mixed God with something unseen that was also created by God, heaven. They began to call God, "Heaven" or Tian.  Furthermore, the Zhou invented the mandate of heaven which meant that the gods approved of the Zhou dynasty rule. According to the Encyclopedia Britannica:

"As a god, tian is sometimes perceived to be an impersonal power in contrast to Shangdi (“Supreme Ruler”), but the two are closely identified and the terms frequently used synonymously. Evidence suggests that tian originally referred to the sky while Shangdi referred to the Supreme Ancestor who resided there. The first mention of tian seems to have occurred early in the Zhou dynasty."

It was during this time that Confucianism, Taoism were developed and Buddhism were spread. Confucianism is closer to the Shang religion, they believed in a God however ancestors are also worshiped. Taoism is closer to the Zhou religion and believes basically in pantheism and "following the Tao". Buddha as a figure is followed by both religions. Ideas with buzzwords, 'enlightenment', 'the path', 'tranquility', 'self-discovery', 'meditation', 'unity with the community' began to develop. Although these people were not strictly monotheistic, it helps to prove the point that people did recognize one powerful lord and therefore suggests Urmonotheismus.

 

                                     The Iroquois                                       

The Iroquois (Native American tribe of New York) in North America believed in monotheism. The following is an extract written by David Ruvulo which is linked above.

"According to Lewis H. Morgan, their religion is characterized by a monotheistic belief in an all-powerful creator known as the "Great Spirit", or "Ha-wen-ne-yu." [Morgan writes:] "The Iroquois believed in the constant superintending care of the Great Spirit. He ruled and administered the world, and the affairs of the red race." (1954, 146). The Iroquois failed to see the need in developing a detailed conception of their creator."

"This knowledge was thought to be above and beyond their capabilities to understand. His power was administered to the material world through "a class of inferior spiritual existences, by whom he was surrounded." (1954, 147). While divine attributes concerning the Great Spirit remained undeveloped, the Iroquois gave detailed descriptions of this lower class of spirits (angels) that interacted with the material world."

"According to Morgan, the Great Spirit does not have any type of positive authority over the Evil-minded, except for the power to overcome him when necessary (1954, 148). The red race is left to choose either obedience to the Great Spirit or submission to the Evil-minded. It is important to note that the Iroquois developed the idea of an immortal soul. This soul was judged by the Great Spirit upon the death of the body. The threat of punishment in the afterlife increased morality concerns, which aided in the success of the Iroquois Nation."

The article describes the way the Iriquois described God as undetailed. This is similar to the Islamic belief that God is far past human comprehension (And there is nothing like unto him, in the last verse of Sura Ikhlas).  The article also describes "Invisible Agents" known as Ho-no-che-no-keh sent by the Great Spirit (possibly angels). They believe in a brother of the Great Spirit that is evil and is called "Ha-ne-go-ate-geh". There exist agents of evil in the real world (i.e. shayateen). They believe in human agents that have a connection to the Great Spirit like prophets. The Iroquois also believed in an afterlife with a potential punishment or reward just like Muslims do. These are suspiciously Islamic concepts!

 

Tribes Among the Aboriginals

Many tribes among the Australian Aboriginals believed in monotheism. The aboriginal people were the native people of Australia and were spread all over the continent and had over 250 languages before colonization (more languages mean more cultures and possibly by extension diversity in religion). In the words of Erich Kolig who wrote in 1992:

"In the 19th century, ethnographers working mainly in south-east Australia, recorded a widespread belief among the Aborigines in a supreme male deity who seemed to surpass others in imporance and exaltedness. Aborinines knew of him by various names, such as Biaame, Nurrundere, Nurelli, Martumnere, Biamban, Bunjil, Daramulun, Mami-nga-ta, Mungan-ngaua, and countless others many of which mean "father", or "our father," or simple "elder." In the anthropological literature, subsequently, this deity was referred to as All-Father, Sky God, High-God (Hochgott), Supreme Spirit and Supreme Being and surrounded by such an ethnographic aura as to invest it with qualities of (almost) monotheistic proportions."

"Aborigines seem to have believed this divine character to dwell in the sky and to be, though somewhat otiose, of a benign disposition towards humanity. Basic creative deed, of both a natural and cultural kind, were attributed to him, such as having shaped basic features of the earth, having instituted initiation ceremonies and life-giving rituals, laid down laws and customs, and the like. On a more abstract level of exegesis, one might say that he represented the principle of good, having combated and triumphed over evil in some form or other. Having retreated from his sojourn on earth, he was believed now to live in the sky, aloof aloft, and according to some beliefs, sitting on a throne."

 

Now read this and let your mind melt:

An example of an approval of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) which indicates that Allah is exalted and high is the hadeeth (report) concerning the young slave girl, to whom the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: "Where is Allah?" She said: "In heaven." He asked, "Who am I?" She said, "The Messenger of Allah." So he said to her master: "Set her free, for she is a believer."

 

The Kapauku

 

The Kapauku People of modern New Guinea were monotheistic. The following is from an extract from the book, The Kapauku Papuans Of West Guinea by Leopold Pospisil.

"The universe itself and all existence was Ebijata, "designed by Ugatame", the Creator, Ugatame has a dual nature: He is supposed to be masculine and feminine at the same time, is referred to as the two entities, and is manifested to the people by the duality of the sun and the moon. To my enquiry whether Ugatame was the sun and the moon I received the answer a firm denial. The sun is conceived as the ball of fire, because it provides light and is warm; moon is believed to be a cold light like that of a firefly or the bacteria that infest rotting wood. Sun and moon are only manifestations of Ugatame who thus makes his presence known to the people. they definitely are not Creator himself..."

He continues in another passage:

"Ugatame is omniscient, omnipotent and omnipresent, credited with the creation of all things and with having determined all events. Strangely enough, however, he is not believed to exist himself. When I questioned this contention, a Kapauku defended skillfully by a question: "But how can he exist when he created all the existence?" Obviously Ugatame is beyond existence, because to Kapauku all that exists must be of phenomenal nature; one must be able to see, hear, smell, taste or feel it. But the Creator is beyond this phenomenal dimension, because of the simple reason that He created it. because He is so to speak, in the fifth dimension and is not of phenomenal nature, He is able to be omnipresent."

They believed that the sun and moon were not the creator himself, as do Muslims. They questioned, "But how can he exist when he created all the existence?". This means that you cannot see Ugatame with a telescope directed at the cosmos. He exists outside of our reality. For such a primitive people, they seem to have a very intricate and suspiciously Islamic aqeedah (belief).

 

Akhenaten

Akhenaten (supporter of Aten) was the ruler of Egypt and changed the state religion from an organized, institutionalized, ecclesiastical, polytheistic worship of a family of gods to the worship of one God, Aten. Aten was represented by a sun with rays coming down from it, but over time even that symbol was banned and Aten was only written phonetically. According to Ancient Egypt Online: "He also made it clear that the image of the Aten only represented the god, but that the god transcended creation and so could not be fully understood or represented." Akhenaten claimed that he had a connection with Aten just as the previous kings of Egypt claimed. Author Hamdi bin Hamza Al-Suraiseri Al-Johani makes a case claiming that Akhenaten was the Dhul-Qurnain mentioned in the Quran.

According to Wikipedia: In the ninth year of his reign (1344/1342 BC), Akhenaten declared a more radical version of his new religion, declaring Aten not merely the supreme god of the Egyptian pantheon but the only God of Egypt, with himself as the sole intermediary between the Aten and the Egyptian people. Key features of Atenism included a ban on idols and other images of the Aten, with the exception of a rayed solar disc in which the rays (commonly depicted ending in hands) appear to represent the unseen spirit of Aten. Aten was addressed by Akhenaten in prayers, such as the Great Hymn to the Aten: "O Sole God beside whom there is none". Aten's name is also written differently after the ninth year of the Pharaoh's rule to emphasize the radicalism of the new regime. Aten, instead of being written with the symbol of a rayed solar disc, now became spelled phonetically.

So even the symbol of the sun was destroyed and now only the name existed. Just like iconoclastic religion of Islam. Also, the phrase  "O Sole God beside whom there is none" sounds like a familiar prayer with the Muslims, la ilaha illa anta... (there is no God but you...). With the demise of Akhenaten, came the resurgence of the powerful polytheistic priesthood that preceded Akenaten.

How can it be possible that all of these nations have so similar monotheistic beliefs yet we some claim that they all developed independently? There are only two explanations: that all these nations’ religions had common descent or that monotheism is built in the societal fitra (inclination) allowing monotheism to truly develop independently in multiple instances.

If they had a common origin, then that suggests that God did send prophets to each of these areas. If it is societal fitra, then this raises another question: what (or who) makes us have the desire to worship, to revere something, to adopt a religion?

 

Many other nations also independently practiced obscure Islamic traditions

There existed traditions practiced by societies that can barely be explained with anthropological evolution and suggests common descent of religion (see what I did there?). I will take the example of the practice of circumcision.

Bukhari and Muslim narrated that Abu Hurayrah said: The Messenger of Allah (SA) said:

·         Ibraheem (peace be upon him) circumcised himself when he was eighty years old, and he circumcised himself with an adze.

 

In fact, circumcision did not come into Islam from Judaism because it was already a custom of the Arabs (There’s a very relevant Christian history with circumcision and gentiles here).

 

Circumcision is very awkwardly practiced... well everywhere

        Aboriginal Australians

        All of Madagascar

        Some Pacific Islanders

        Western and Central and Eastern Africans (Tribal religions AND Abrahamic Faiths)

        Muslims and Jews

        The Xhosa in South Africa (Nelson Mandela tribe) and other southern African tribes

        Jews (Jesus too)

        South Koreans

        Filipinos

        Really Ancient Europeans (38,000 to 11,000 BCE)

        Pythagoras in Alexandria Egypt (before Jesus)

        Ancient Egyptians 5000 years ago depicted it in hieroglyphs

        The Aztecs

        Pre-Islam Arabs

 

 

There are some health benefits to it. It protects against infection and has sanitary properties. It seems peculiar that so many cultures are willing to perform such a painful surgery (which could possibly cause more disease) for the sake of health. Surely not all of the aforementioned cultures could have found the medical benefits to circumcision independent of each other.

But then you might question: well the only custom they shared was circumcision. The existence of the other religious ceremonies these other nations have, should refute your claim that a religious ceremony can be used as evidence to suggest Urmonotheismus. Well, you’d be right, if this verse did not exist. In Sura Al-Hajj, verse 67 says:

       Unto each nation have We given sacred rites which they are to perform; so let them not dispute with thee of the matter, but summon thou unto thy Lord. Lo! thou indeed followest the right guidance.

This implies that between nations of the past, it was possible for Muslims (i.e. monotheists who submitted to the will of their creator) to have differing rituals despite their theology remaining the same. For example, the Hajj was prescribed to the nation of Mohammad SAW and not to Musa AS.

So, could this behavior of circumcision be caused by religious reasons or is it simply societal fitra (natural societal disposition)? Punishments such as scalping (removing the scalp of a dead person as a trophy) developed independently between cultures as well, so does that mean it refutes my argument? Well, no. Scalping served a deranged purpose (as a trophy) whereas circumcision barely did.

The point is not that Islam is being practiced in all of the sites which practice circumcision. Rather, circumcision suggests that perhaps there were prophets whose messages degenerated over time or that there is a societal fitrah towards Islamic practices. I have discussed two evidences (prevalence of monotheism and obscure Islamic traditions) in support of the claim that there were messengers who proselytized people to Islam before Mohammad (SAW) to other nations.

 

 

Monotheism is natural at birth

Atheists love to assume that religion is just an acquired idea created by society to explain the world around us. They propose that now that we have science, there is no need for creation stories and no need for a God to attribute everything to. However, a belief in God is not just an intellectual need that they argue has been fulfilled (not), it is innate as our innate sense that killing is wrong.

You will never -deep down- stop believing that you have a soul, that there is a creator, that there is an afterlife, no matter how much you try and stamp out this instinct, it is 'set in stone'. You should be able to understand and/or relate after watching the following minute-and-a-half-long video  featuring Br. John Fontain. You must watch it:

 

 

This is what I'm talking about! Although the man is apparently saying that he doesn't believe in God and that he might have intellectual reasoning for it, in times of crisis he abandons his 'rational' atheism. This means that he wasn't fully convinced with his atheism. There have all been times in our lives where in crisis we call out to a higher power to save us as in Sura Luqman, verse 32:

       And when waves come over them like canopies, they supplicate Allah, sincere to Him in religion. But when He delivers them to the land, there are [some] of them who are moderate [in faith]. And none rejects Our signs except everyone treacherous and ungrateful.

Do we have an emotional, psychological belief in God, and if so, why? Is this this emotional psychological proof in God more visceral than superficial intellectual proofs? Why does this exist?

 

 

Nury Vittachi writes in Science 2.0 in his article, "Scientists discover that atheists might not exist, and that’s not a joke":

 While militant atheists like Richard Dawkins may be convinced God doesn’t exist, God, if he is around, may be amused to find that atheists might not exist.

Cognitive scientists are becoming increasingly aware that a metaphysical outlook may be so deeply ingrained in human thought processes that it cannot be expunged.

While this idea may seem outlandish—after all, it seems easy to decide not to believe in God—evidence from several disciplines indicates that what you actually believe is not a decision you make for yourself. Your fundamental beliefs are decided by much deeper levels of consciousness, and some may well be more or less set in stone.

This line of thought has led to some scientists claiming that “atheism is psychologically impossible because of the way humans think,” says Graham Lawton, an avowed atheist himself, writing in the New Scientist. “They point to studies showing, for example, that even people who claim to be committed atheists tacitly hold religious beliefs, such as the existence of an immortal soul.”

This shouldn’t come as a surprise, since we are born believers, not atheists, scientists say. Humans are pattern-seekers from birth, with a belief in karma, or cosmic justice, as our default setting. “A slew of cognitive traits predisposes us to faith,” writes Pascal Boyer in Nature, the science journal, adding that people “are only aware of some of their religious ideas”.

 

 

Furthermore Barney Zwartz writes in his article: "Infants 'have natural belief in God'":

 Infants are hard-wired to believe in God, and atheism has to be learned, according to an Oxford University psychologist.

Dr Olivera Petrovich told a University of Western Sydney conference on the psychology of religion that even preschool children constructed theological concepts as part of their understanding of the physical world.

Psychologists have debated whether belief in God or atheism was the natural human state. According to Dr Petrovich, an expert in psychology of religion, belief in God is not taught but develops naturally.

She told The Age yesterday that belief in God emerged as a result of other psychological development connected with understanding causation.

It was hard-wired into the human psyche, but it was important not to build too much into the concept of God. "It's the concept of God as creator, primarily," she said. Dr Petrovich said her findings were based on several studies, particularly one of Japanese children aged four to six, and another of 400 British children aged five to seven from seven different faiths.

"Atheism is definitely an acquired position," she said.

 

 

Lastly, psychologist Justin Barrett writes in his book “Born Believers”:

“Scientific research on children’s developing minds and supernatural beliefs suggests that children normally and rapidly acquire minds that facilitate belief in supernatural agents. Particularly in the first year after birth, children distinguish between agents and non-agents, understanding agents as able to move themselves in purposeful ways to pursue goals. They are keen to find agency around them, even given scant evidence. Not long after their first birthday, babies appear to understand that agents, but not natural forces or ordinary objects, can create order out of disorder…This tendency to see function and purpose, plus an understanding that purpose and order come from minded beings, makes children likely to see natural phenomena as intentionally created. Who is the Creator? Children know people are not good candidates. It must have been a god…children are born believers of what I call natural religion…(end quote)”[17]

 

 

Conclusion

I love using long quotes because they take the words right out of my mouth. It seems as though babies are programmed to be believers in God as the causer for everything. Two atheist parents could find their 4 year old coming home and saying, "God is everywhere". Barrett says,"If we threw a handful on an island and they raised themselves I think they would believe in God." . This is the exact position that Muslims have! However skeptics would argue that just because it is an instinct that we should be skeptical of it and therefore God doesn't exist. That's preposterous because this only solidifies the claim of the Hadith, "A child is born upon the fitrah..." and this can even be considered a psychological miracle of Islam!

There were messengers who proselytized people to Islam before Mohammad (SAW) to other nations because there existed monotheistic religions and obscure Islamic traditions which were practiced in societies that were not influenced by Abrahamic religions. Humans naturally incline towards theism from birth. Therefore, the Quran's and Hadith's claims are plausible and this serves to strengthen the Muslim's iman.

Islam, with its concepts of hanif and tawhid, truly is a universally accessible, cross-cultural religion with a simple theology and confounding implications! Can tawhid within a society develop organically without the aid of a prophet? Why does our innate belief in God persist despite our modern age explanatory power? Can we ever run away from the stamp on our souls from our creator? Is the atheistic argument from inconsistent revelation obsolete? Has it been replaced with its antagonistic argument, the argument from consistent revelation with the discovery of Urmonotheismus?

In Sura Al-A'raf, verse 172 says:

       And (remember) when thy Lord brought forth from the Children of Adam, from their reins, their seed, and made them testify of themselves, (saying): Am I not your Lord? They said: Yea, verily. We testify. (That was) lest ye should say at the Day of Resurrection: Lo! of this we were unaware.

 

All credit, praise and glory is to God, the king of kings, and the master of the Day of Judgement. Only the mistakes are mine.

 

سبحانك اللهم و بحمدك و أستغفر و أتوب إليك

 

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